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Coordinates: 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37
33182°N 122
03118°W / 37
33182; -122
is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services
Its hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, and the Apple Watch smartwatch
Apple’s consumer software includes the OS X and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites
Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, and iCloud
Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne on April 1, 1976, to develop and sell personal computers
[5] It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc
on January 3, 1977, and was renamed as Apple Inc
on January 9, 2007, to reflect its shifted focus toward consumer electronics
Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL) joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average on March 19, 2015
Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue, the world’s largest technology company by total assets,[7] and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer
[8] In November 2014, in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, Apple became the first U
company to be valued at over US$700 billion
[9] The company employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015[update][4] and maintains 475 retail stores in seventeen countries as of March 2016[update]
[1] It operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world’s largest music retailer
There are over one billion actively used Apple products worldwide as of March 2016[update]
Apple’s worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015
[3] To put this into perspective this revenue generation accounts for approximately 1
25% of the total United States GDP
[11] The company enjoys a high level of brand loyalty and, according to the 2014 edition of the Interbrand Best Global Brands report, is the world’s most valuable brand with a valuation of $118
[12] By the end of 2014, the corporation continued to receive significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials
Apple was established on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne[13][14] to sell the Apple I personal computer kit
The Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak[15][16] and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club
[17] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips), which was less than what is now considered a complete personal computer
[18] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666
66 ($2,772 in 2016 dollars, adjusted for inflation)
Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977,[25] without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800
[14] Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple
[26][27] During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months
Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, an average annual growth rate of 533%
The Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire
It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture
While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II
[29] The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first “killer app” of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program
[30] VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office
[30] Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore and Tandy
By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line
The company introduced the Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market
[33] Jobs and several Apple employees, including Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto
Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (800,000 split-adjusted shares) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share
Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa
[35] In 1982, however, he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting
Jobs took over Jef Raskin’s low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh
A race broke out between the Lisa team and the Macintosh team over which product would ship first
Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles
On December 12, 1980, Apple went public at $22 per share,[37] generating more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly creating more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history
In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh, the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language at all
[39] Its debut was signified by “1984”, a $1
5 million television commercial directed by Ridley Scott that aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984
[40] The commercial is now hailed as a watershed event for Apple’s success[41] and a “masterpiece”
The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong[44] due to its high price and limited range of software titles
The machine’s fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be sold at a reasonable price, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package
It has been suggested that the combination of these three products were responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market
[45] The Macintosh was particularly powerful in the desktop publishing market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which had necessarily been built in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI
In 1985, a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired two years earlier
[46] The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to “contain” Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products
Rather than submit to Sculley’s direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple
Sculley found out that Jobs had been attempting to organize a coup and called a board meeting at which Apple’s board of directors sided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties
[44] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc
the same year
After Jobs’ departure, the Macintosh product line underwent a steady change of focus to higher price points, the so-called “high-right policy” named for the position on a chart of price vs
Jobs had argued the company should produce products aimed at the consumer market and aimed for a $1000 price for the Macintosh, which they were unable to meet
Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin, and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in power
Although some worried about pricing themselves out of the market, the high-right policy was in full force by the mid-1980s, notably due to Jean-Louis Gassée’s mantra of “fifty-five or die”, referring to the 55% profit margins of the Macintosh II
This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as new desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh but at far lower price points
The company lost its monopoly in this market, and had already estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high priced products
The Christmas season of 1989 was the first in the company’s history that saw declining sales, and led to a 20% drop in Apple’s stock price
[49] Gassée’s objections were overruled, and he was forced from the company in 1990
Later that year, Apple introduced three lower cost models, the Macintosh Classic, Macintosh LC and Macintosh IIsi, all of which saw significant sales due to pent up demand
In 1991 Apple introduced the PowerBook, replacing the “luggable” Macintosh Portable with a design that set the current shape for almost all modern laptops
The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities
It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001
The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue
[46] For some time, Apple was doing incredibly well, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process
The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the “first golden age” of the Macintosh
[citation needed]
Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh
[50] In 1990, Apple released the Macintosh LC, which featured a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to help migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform;[50] the Apple IIe was discontinued in 1993
The success of Apple’s lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to cannibalization of their higher priced machines
To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets
These were the high-end Quadra, the mid-range Centris line, and the ill-fated Performa series
This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models
Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the 1990s, including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, the eWorld online service, and TV appliances
Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley’s unrealistic market forecasts
[citation needed] Ultimately, none of these products helped and Apple’s market share and stock prices continued to slide
[citation needed]
Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience
[53] Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response; instead, they sued Microsoft for using a GUI similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc
Microsoft Corp
[54] The lawsuit dragged on for years before it was finally dismissed
At this time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple’s reputation, and Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler
By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as A/UX
The Macintosh platform itself was becoming outdated because it was not built for multitasking and because several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware
In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors such as Sun Microsystems
The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on more powerful hardware
In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance with the goal of creating a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple software
The AIM alliance hoped that PReP’s performance and Apple’s software would leave the PC far behind and thus counter Microsoft
The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use Motorola’s PowerPC processor
In 1996, Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO
Amelio made numerous changes at Apple, including extensive layoffs and cut costs
[58] After numerous failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project and later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system and bring Steve Jobs back to Apple
The NeXT deal was finalized on February 9, 1997,[60] bringing Jobs back to Apple as an advisor
On July 9, 1997, Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses
Jobs acted as the interim CEO and began restructuring the company’s product line; it was during this period that he identified the design talent of Jonathan Ive, and the pair worked collaboratively to rebuild Apple’s status
At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft had made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock
[62] On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Online Store, which was tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy
On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac
The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone
[65][66] The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design, and sold almost 800,000 units in its first five months
During this period,[when?] Apple completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital production software for both professionals and consumers
In 1998, Apple purchased Macromedia’s Key Grip software project, signaling an expansion into the digital video editing market
The sale was an outcome of Macromedia’s decision to solely focus upon web development software
The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed “Final Cut Pro” when it was launched on the retail market in April 1999
[68][69] The development of Key Grip also led to Apple’s release of the consumer video-editing product iMovie in October 1999
[70] Next, Apple successfully acquired the German company Astarte, which had developed DVD authoring technology, as well as Astarte’s corresponding products and engineering team in April 2000
Astarte’s digital tool DVDirector was subsequently transformed into the professional-oriented DVD Studio Pro software product
Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market
[70] In 2002, Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake,[71] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic
The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company
The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple’s consumer-level GarageBand application
[72] The release of iPhoto in the same year completed the iLife suite
Mac OS X, based on NeXT’s OPENSTEP and BSD Unix, was released on March 24, 2001 after several years of development
Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface
To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications within Mac OS X via the Classic Environment
On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California
[75] On October 23 of the same year, Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player
The product, which was first sold on November 10, 2001, was phenomenally successful with over 100 million units sold within six years
[76][77] In 2003, Apple’s iTunes Store was introduced
The service offered online music downloads for $0
99 a song and integration with the iPod
The iTunes store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008
At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006
[79] On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to use Intel’s Core Duo CPU
By August 7, 2006, Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced
[79] The Power Mac, iBook and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition; the Mac Pro, MacBook, and MacBook Pro became their respective successors
[80][81] On April 29, 2009, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips
[82] Apple also introduced Boot Camp in 2006 to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X
Apple’s success during this period was evident in its stock price
Between early 2003 and 2006, the price of Apple’s stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80
In January 2006, Apple’s market cap surpassed that of Dell
[84] Nine years prior, Dell’s CEO Michael Dell had said that if he ran Apple he would “shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders
“[85] Although Apple’s market share in computers had grown, it remained far behind competitors using Microsoft Windows, accounting for about 8% of desktops and laptops in the US
[citation needed]
Since 2001, Apple’s design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3
This design change began with the titanium-made PowerBook and was followed by the iBook’s white polycarbonate structure and the flat-panel iMac
During his keynote speech at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc
would thereafter be known as “Apple Inc
“, because the company had shifted its emphasis from computers to consumer electronics
[89][90] This event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV
[91][92][93][94] The following day, Apple shares hit $97
80, an all-time high at that point
In May, Apple’s share price passed the $100 mark
[95] Apple would achieve widespread success with its iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad products, which introduced innovations in mobile phones, portable music players and personal computers respectively
[96] Furthermore, by early 2007, 800,000 Final Cut Pro users were registered
In an article posted on Apple’s website on February 6, 2007, Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management (DRM), thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology
[98] On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI’s catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May 2007
[99] Other record labels eventually followed suit and Apple published a press release in January 2009 to announce the corresponding changes to the iTunes Store
In July 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch
[101] Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and registered an average daily revenue of $1 million, with Jobs speculating in August 2008 that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple
[102] By October 2008, Apple was the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that 2009 would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Philip Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs
The official press release explained that Apple was “scaling back” on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel
On January 14, 2009, an internal memo from Jobs announced that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June 2009 and would spend the time focusing on his health
In the email, Jobs stated that “the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well”, and explained that the break would allow the company “to focus on delivering extraordinary products”
[106] Despite Jobs’s absence, Apple recorded its best non-holiday quarter (Q1 FY 2009) during the recession with revenue of $8
16 billion and profit of $1
After years of speculation and multiple rumored “leaks”, Apple announced a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, 2010
The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad
This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release
Later that year on April 3, 2010, the iPad was launched in the US
It sold more than 300,000 units on its first day, and 500,000 by the end of the first week
[109] In May of the same year, Apple’s market cap exceeded that of competitor Microsoft for the first time since 1989
In June 2010, Apple released the iPhone 4,[111] which introduced video calling, multitasking, and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone’s antenna
Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano, an iPod Touch with FaceTime, and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the buttons of earlier generations
[112][113][114] Additionally, on October 20, Apple updated the MacBook Air laptop, iLife suite of applications, and unveiled Mac OS X Lion, the last version with the name Mac OS X
In October 2010, Apple shares hit an all-time high, eclipsing $300
On January 6, 2011, the company opened its Mac App Store, a digital software distribution platform similar to the iOS App Store
Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured which premiered in 2011 and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley
On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence, for an indefinite period, to allow him to focus on his health
Chief operating officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs’s day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain “involved in major strategic decisions”
[119] Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world
[120] In June 2011, Jobs surprisingly took the stage and unveiled iCloud, an online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files and software which replaced MobileMe, Apple’s previous attempt at content syncing
This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death
It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony (one buyer, many sellers) and can dictate terms to its suppliers
[122][123][124] In July 2011, due to the American debt-ceiling crisis, Apple’s financial reserves were briefly larger than those of the U
On August 24, 2011, Jobs resigned his position as CEO of Apple
[126] He was replaced by Cook and Jobs became Apple’s chairman
Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D
Levinson, who continued with those titles until Levinson became Chairman of the Board in November
On October 5, 2011, Apple announced that Jobs had died, marking the end of an era for Apple
[128][129] The first major product announcement by Apple following Jobs’s passing occurred on January 19, 2012, when Apple’s Phil Schiller introduced iBooks Textbooks for iOS and iBook Author for Mac OS X in New York City
[130] Jobs had stated in his biography that he wanted to reinvent the textbook industry and education
From 2011 to 2012, Apple released the iPhone 4S and iPhone 5, which featured improved cameras, an “intelligent software assistant” named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud;[131][132][133] the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays;[134][135][136] and the iPad Mini, which featured a 7
9-inch screen in contrast to the iPad’s 9
7-inch screen
[137] These launches were successful, with the iPhone 5 (released September 21, 2012) becoming Apple’s biggest iPhone launch with over 2 million pre-orders[138] and sales of 3 million iPads in three days following the launch of the iPad Mini and fourth generation iPad (released November 3, 2012)
[139] Apple also released a third-generation 13-inch MacBook Pro with a Retina display and new iMac and Mac Mini computers
On October 29, 2011, Apple purchased C3 Technologies, a mapping company, for $240 million, becoming the third mapping company Apple has purchased
[141] On January 10, 2012, Apple paid $500 million to acquire Anobit, an Israeli hardware company that developed and supplied a proprietary memory signal processing technology that improved the performance of the flash-memory used in iPhones and iPads
[142][143] On July 24, 2012, during a conference call with investors, Tim Cook said that he loved India, but that Apple was going to expect larger opportunities outside of India
Cook cited the reason as the 30% sourcing requirement from India
[clarification needed][144][145][146][147]
On August 20, 2012, Apple’s rising stock rose the company’s value to a world-record $624 billion
This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in 1999
[148] On August 24, 2012, a US jury ruled that Samsung should pay Apple $1
05 billion (£665m) in damages in an intellectual property lawsuit
[149] Samsung appealed the damages award, which the Court reduced by $450 million
[150] The Court further granted Samsung’s request for a new trial
[150] On November 10, 2012, Apple confirmed a global settlement that would dismiss all lawsuits between Apple and HTC up to that date, in favor of a ten-year license agreement for current and future patents between the two companies
[151] It is predicted that Apple will make $280 million a year from this deal with HTC
A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death, was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc
Samsung Electronics Co
lawsuits and became publicly available in early April 2014
With a subject line that reads “Top 100 – A,” the email was sent only to the company’s 100 most senior employees and outlines Jobs’s vision of Apple Inc
‘s future under 10 subheadings
Notably, Jobs declares a “Holy War with Google” for 2011 and schedules a “new campus” for 2015
In March 2013, Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality (AR) system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image
[154] Later in 2013, Apple acquired Embark Inc
, a small Silicon Valley-based mapping company that builds free transit apps to help smartphone users navigate public transportation in U
cities,[155] and PrimeSense, an Israeli 3D sensing company based in Tel Aviv
[156] In December 2013, Apple Inc
purchased social analytics firm Topsy
Topsy is one of a small number of firms with real-time access to the messages that appear on Twitter and can “do real-time analysis of the trends and discussions happening on Twitter”
[157] The company also made several high profile hiring decisions in 2013
On July 2, 2013, Apple recruited Paul Deneve, Belgian President and CEO of Yves Saint Laurent as a vice president reporting directly to Tim Cook
[158] A mid-October 2013 announcement revealed that Burberry executive Angela Ahrendts will commence as a senior vice president at Apple in mid-2014
Ahrendts oversaw Burberry’s digital strategy for almost eight years and, during her tenure, sales increased to about US$3
2 billion and shares gained more than threefold
At the Worldwide Developer’s Conference on June 10, 2013, Apple announced the seventh iOS operating system alongside OS X Mavericks, the tenth version of Mac OS X, and a new Internet radio service called iTunes Radio
[160][161][162] iTunes Radio, iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks were released fall 2013
[160][161][163] On December 6, 2013, Apple Inc
launched iBeacon across its 254 U
retail stores
Using Bluetooth wireless technology, iBeacon senses the user’s exact location within the Apple store and sends the user messages about products, events and other information, tailored to the user’s location
Alongside Google vice-president Vint Cerf and AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson, Cook attended a closed-door summit held by President Obama on August 8, 2013, in regard to government surveillance and the Internet in the wake of the Edward Snowden NSA incident
[165][166] On February 4, 2014, Cook met with Abdullah Gül, the President of Turkey, in Ankara to discuss the company’s involvement in the Fatih project
[167] Cook also confirmed that Turkey’s first Apple Retail Store would be opened in Istanbul in April 2014
An anonymous Apple employee revealed to the Bloomberg media publication that the opening of a Tokyo, Japan, store was planned for 2014
A Japanese analyst has stated, “For Apple, the Japanese market is appealing in terms of quantity and price
There is room to expand tablet sales and a possibility the Japanese market expands if Apple’s mobile carrier partners increase
“[169] As of June 13, 2014[update], Apple operated three stores in Tokyo
[170] On October 1, 2013, Apple India executives unveiled a plan to expand further into the Indian market, following Cook’s acknowledgment of the country in July 2013 when sales results showed that iPhone sales in India grew 400% during the second quarter of 2013
reported that the company sold 51 million iPhones in the Q1 of 2014 (an all-time quarterly record), compared to 47
8 million in the year-ago quarter
Apple also sold 26 million iPads during the quarter, also an all-time quarterly record, compared to 22
9 million in the year-ago quarter
The Company sold 4
8 million Macs, compared to 4
1 million in the year-ago quarter
[172] On May 28, 2014, Apple confirmed its intent to acquire Dr
Dre and Jimmy Iovine’s audio company Beats Electronics—producer of the Beats by Dr
Dre line of headphones and speaker products, and operator of the music streaming service Beats Music—for $3 billion, and to sell their products through Apple’s retail outlets and resellers
Iovine felt that Beats had always “belonged” with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple’s “unmatched ability to marry culture and technology
“[173][174][175] In August 2014, an Apple representative confirmed to the media that Anand Lal Shimpi, editor and publisher of the AnandTech website, had been recruited by Apple without elaborating on Lal Shimpi’s role
In 2016, it was revealed that Apple would be making its first original scripted series,[177] a six-episode drama about the life of Dr
Music Video director Paul Hunter will direct the series
Macs that are currently being sold are:
Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Macs, including Thunderbolt Display, Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad, Wireless Keyboard, Battery Charger, the AirPort wireless networking products, and Time Capsule
On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player
Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin
More than 350 million units have shipped as of September 2012[update]
[178] Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit, enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website
Apple currently sells three variants of the iPod:
At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the long-anticipated[180] iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod
[181] The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract
[182] On February 5, 2008, it was updated to have 16 GB of memory, in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models
[183] It combined a 2
5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in handheld devices, running scaled-down versions of Apple’s Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS, later renamed iOS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail
It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather
The iPhone features a 3
5-inch (89 mm) touchscreen display, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both “b” and “g”)
A second version, the iPhone 3G, was released on July 11, 2008 with a reduced price of $199 for the 8 GB version and $299 for the 16 GB version
[184] This version added support for 3G networking and assisted-GPS navigation
The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back
Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store, which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download
On April 24, 2009, the App Store[185] surpassed one billion downloads
[186] On June 8, 2009, Apple announced the iPhone 3GS
It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control
At the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) on June 7, 2010, Apple announced the redesigned iPhone 4
[187] It featured a 960×640 display, the Apple A4 processor, a gyroscope for enhanced gaming, a 5MP camera with LED flash, front-facing VGA camera and FaceTime video calling
Shortly after its release, reception issues were discovered by consumers, due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phone’s cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna
The issue was corrected by a “Bumper Case” distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months
In June 2011, Apple overtook Nokia to become the world’s biggest smartphone maker by volume
[188] On October 4, 2011, Apple unveiled the iPhone 4S, which was first released on October 14, 2011
[189] It features the Apple A5 processor and Siri voice assistant technology, the latter of which Apple had acquired in 2010
[190] It also features an updated 8MP camera with new optics
Apple began a new accessibility feature, Made for iPhone Hearing Aids with the iPhone 4S
[191] Made for iPhone Hearing Aids feature Live Listen, it can help you hear a conversation in a noisy room or hear someone speaking across the room
[192] Apple sold 4 million iPhone 4S phones in the first three days of availability
On September 12, 2012, Apple introduced the iPhone 5
[194] It has a 4-inch display, 4G LTE connectivity, and the upgraded Apple A6 chip, among several other improvements
[195] Two million iPhones were sold in the first twenty-four hours of pre-ordering[196] and over five million handsets were sold in the first three days of its launch
[197] Upon the launch of the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C, Apple set a new record for first-weekend smartphone sales by selling over nine million devices in the first three days of its launch
[198] The release of the iPhone 5S and 5C was the first time that Apple simultaneously launched two models
A patent filed in July 2013 revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user’s habits to moderate the handsets power settings accordingly
Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used
In a March 2014 interview, Apple designer Jonathan Ive used the iPhone as an example of Apple’s ethos of creating high-quality, life-changing products
He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them:
We don’t take so long and make the way we make for fiscal reasons
Quite the reverse
The body is made from a single piece of machined aluminium
The whole thing is polished first to a mirror finish and then is very finely textured, except for the Apple logo
The chamfers [smoothed-off edges] are cut with diamond-tipped cutters
The cutters don’t usually last very long, so we had to figure out a way of mass-manufacturing long-lasting ones
The camera cover is sapphire crystal
Look at the details around the sim-card slot
It’s extraordinary![61]
On September 9, 2014, Apple introduced the iPhone 6, alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches
[201] One year later, Apple introduced the iPhone 6S, and iPhone 6S Plus, which introduced a new technology called 3D Touch, including an increase of the rear camera to 12 MP, and the FaceTime camera to 5 MP
[202] On March 21, 2016, Apple introduced the iPhone SE that has a 4-inch size last used with the 5S and has the same hardware as the 6S except for the lack of inclusion of 3D Touch
On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the iPad, which runs a modified version of iOS
It offers multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, e-books, photos, videos, music, word processing documents, video games, and most existing iPhone apps using a 9
7-inch screen
[204] It also includes a mobile version of Safari for web browsing, as well as access to the App Store, iTunes Library, iBookstore, Contacts, and Notes
Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user’s computer
[205] AT&T was initially the sole U
provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad
On March 2, 2011, Apple introduced the iPad 2, which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back
It also added support for optional 3G service provided by Verizon in addition to AT&T
[207] The availability of the iPad 2 was initially limited as a result of a devastating earthquake and tsunami in Japan in March 2011
The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, 2012 and marketed as “the new iPad”
It added LTE service from AT&T or Verizon, an upgraded A5X processor, and Retina display
The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes
On October 23, 2012, Apple’s fourth-generation iPad came out, marketed as the “iPad with Retina display”
It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional 30-pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector
[210] The iPad Mini was also introduced
It featured a reduced 7
9-inch display and much of the same internal specifications as the iPad 2
On October 22, 2013, Apple introduced the iPad Air and the iPad Mini with Retina Display, both featuring a new 64-bit Apple A7 processor
The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, 2014
It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates
The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time
Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps
The total number of App Store downloads, as of June 2015[update], is over 100 billion
On September 9, 2015, Apple announced the iPad Pro, an iPad with a 12
9-inch display that supports two new accessories, the Smart Keyboard and Apple Pencil
7-inch iPad Pro was announced on March 21, 2016
The Apple Watch smartwatch was launched by Cook on September 9, 2014, and released on April 24, 2015
[217] The wearable device consists of fitness-tracking capabilities that are similar to Fitbit, and must be used in combination with an iPhone to work (only the iPhone 5, or later models, are compatible with the Apple Watch)
At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV (previously known as the iTV),[221] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions
The device links up to a user’s TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer’s iTunes library and streams content from an additional four
The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, included outputs for HDMI and component video, and played video at a maximum resolution of 720p
[222] On May 31, 2007, a 160 GB hard disk drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model
[223] A software update released on January 15, 2008 allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV
In September 2009, Apple discontinued the original 40 GB Apple TV and now continues to produce and sell the 160 GB Apple TV
On September 1, 2010, Apple released a completely redesigned Apple TV
The new device is 1/4 the size, runs quieter, and replaces the need for a hard drive with media streaming from any iTunes library on the network along with 8 GB of flash memory to cache media downloaded
Like the iPad and the iPhone, Apple TV runs on an A4 processor
The memory included in the device is half of that in the iPhone 4 at 256 MB; the same as the iPad, iPhone 3GS, third and fourth-generation iPod Touch
It has HDMI out as the only video out source
Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows (purchasing has been discontinued), streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix, and media streaming from an iTunes library
Apple also reduced the price of the device to $99
A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, 2012, with new features such as higher resolution (1080p) and a new user interface
At the September 9, 2015 event, Apple unveiled an overhauled Apple TV, which now runs a variant of OS X, tvOS, and contains 32GB or 64 GB of NAND Flash to store games, programs, and to cache the current media playing
The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a touchpad, gyroscope and microphone
Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, OS X, the latest version being OS X El Capitan (version 10
Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its OS X operating system
Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers
An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package that bundles iMovie, iPhoto and GarageBand
For presentation, page layout and word processing, iWork is available, which includes Keynote, Pages, and Numbers
iTunes, QuickTime media player, and Software Update are available as free downloads for both OS X and Windows
Apple also offers a range of professional software titles
Their range of server software includes the operating system OS X Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; and Xsan, a Storage Area Network file system
For the professional creative market, there is Final Cut Pro, a video production suite; Logic Pro, a comprehensive music toolkit; and Motion, an advanced effects composition program
Apple also offers online services with iCloud, which provides cloud storage and syncing for a wide range of data, including email, contacts, calendars, photos and documents
It also offers iOS device backup, and is able to integrate directly with third-party apps for even greater functionality
iCloud is the fourth generation of online services provided by Apple, and was preceded by MobileMe,
Mac and iTools, all which met varying degrees of success
According to the Sydney Morning Herald, Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as 2020
Apple has made efforts to recruit battery development engineers and other electric automobile engineers from A123 Systems, LG Chem, Samsung Electronics, Panasonic, Toshiba, Johnson Controls and Tesla Motors
According to Steve Jobs, the company’s name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet
Jobs thought the name “Apple” was “fun, spirited and not intimidating”
Apple’s first logo, designed by Ron Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree
It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff’s “rainbow Apple”, the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it
Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the “bitten” logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it
However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company
[230][231] The logo was designed with a bite so that it would not be confused with a cherry
[232] The colored stripes were conceived to make the logo more accessible, and to represent the fact the Apple II could generate graphics in color
[232] This logo is often erroneously referred to as a tribute to Alan Turing, with the bite mark a reference to his method of suicide
[233][234] Both Janoff and Apple deny any homage to Turing in the design of the logo
On August 27, 1999[228] (the year following the introduction of the iMac G3), Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation
An Aqua-themed version of the monochrome logo was used from 1999 to 2003, and a glass-themed version was used from 2007 to 2013
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were Beatles fans,[237][238] but Apple Inc
had name and logo trademark issues with Apple Corps Ltd
, a multimedia company started by the Beatles in 1967
This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies
These issues ended with settling of their most recent lawsuit in 2007
[citation needed]
Apple’s first slogan, “Byte into an Apple”, was coined in the late 1970s
[239] From 1997 to 2002, the slogan “Think Different” was used in advertising campaigns, and is still closely associated with Apple
[240] Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, “iThink, therefore iMac” was used in 1998 to promote the iMac,[241] and “Say hello to iPhone” has been used in iPhone advertisements
[242] “Hello” was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac (“hello (again)”), and iPod
From the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the more modern ‘Get a Mac’ adverts, Apple has been recognized in for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products
However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized, particularly the 2005 Power Mac ads
[244][245][246] Apple’s product commercials gained a lot of attention as a result of their eye-popping graphics and catchy tunes
[247] Musicians who benefited from an improved profile as a result of their songs being included on Apple commercials include Canadian singer Feist with the song “1234” and Yael Naïm with the song “New Soul”
“The scenes I witnessed at the opening of the new Apple store in London’s Covent Garden were more like an evangelical prayer meeting than a chance to buy a phone or a laptop
Apple’s high level of brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product
Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established
Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism “something that was stumbled upon,”[249] while Ive explained in 2014 that “People have an incredibly personal relationship” with Apple’s products
[61] Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands, with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event
[250] The opening of New York City’s Fifth Avenue “Cube” store had a line half a mile long; a few Mac fans used the setting to propose marriage
[251] The line for the Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated to include thousands of people and exceeded eight city blocks
[252] The high level of brand loyalty has been criticized and ridiculed, applying the epithet “Apple fanboy” and mocking the lengthy lines before a product launch
[253] An internal memo leaked in 2015 suggested the company planned to discourage long lines and direct customers to purchase its products on its website
Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2012
[255][256][257][258][259] On September 30, 2013, Apple surpassed Coca-Cola to become the world’s most valuable brand in the Omnicom Group’s “Best Global Brands” report
[260] Boston Consulting Group has ranked Apple as the world’s most innovative brand every year since 2005
John Sculley told The Guardian newspaper in 1997: “People talk about technology, but Apple was a marketing company
It was the marketing company of the decade
“[262] Research in 2002 by NetRatings indicate that the average Apple consumer was usually more affluent and better educated than other PC company consumers
The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc
products were more expensive than other PC products
In response to a query about the devotion of loyal Apple consumers, Jonathan Ive responded:
What people are responding to is much bigger than the object
They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can
It’s a demonstration against thoughtlessness and carelessness
The Apple website home page has been used to commemorate, or pay tribute to, milestones and events outside of Apple’s product offerings:
‘s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1–6 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California
This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos
Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California, where it houses a testing and research laboratory
[274] AppleInsider published article in March 2014 claiming that Apple has a tucked away a top-secret facility where is developing the SG5 electric vehicle project codenamed “Titan” under the shell company name SixtyEight Research
In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile (1
6 km) east of the current campus and next to Interstate 280
[276] The new campus building will be designed by Norman Foster
[277] The Cupertino City Council approved the proposed “spaceship” design campus on October 15, 2013, after a 2011 presentation by Jobs detailing the architectural design of the new building and its environs
The new campus is planned to house up to 13,000 employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape
It will feature a café with room for 3,000 sitting people and parking underground as well as in a parking structure
8 million square foot facility will also include Jobs’s original designs for a fitness center and a corporate auditorium
Apple’s headquarters for Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) are located in Cork in the south of Ireland
[279][280][281][282][283][284][285] The facility, which opened in 1980, was Apple’s first location outside of the United States
[286] Apple Sales International, which deals with all of Apple’s international sales outside of the USA, is located at Apple’s campus in Cork[287] along with Apple Distribution International, which similarly deals with Apple’s international distribution network
[288] On April 20, 2012, Apple added 500 new jobs at its European headquarters, increasing the total workforce from around 2,800 to 3,300 employees
[278][280][289] The company will build a new office block on its Hollyhill Campus to accommodate the additional staff
[290] Its UK headquarters is at Stockley Park on the outskirts of London
In February 2015, Apple opened their new 180,000-square-foot headquarters in Herzliya, Israel, which will accommodate approximately 800 employees
This opening was Apple’s third office located within Israel; the first, also in Herzliya, was obtained as part of the Anobit acquisition, and the other is a research center in Haifa
Apple has 475 retail stores (as of March 2016[update]) in 17 countries[1] and an online store available in 39 countries
[294] Each store is designed to suit the needs of the location and regulatory authorities
Apple has received numerous architectural awards for its store designs, particularly its midtown Manhattan location on Fifth Avenue
The Apple Store in Regent Street, London, was the first to open in Europe in November 2004, and is the most profitable shop in London with the highest sales per square foot, taking £60,000,000 pa, or £2,000 per square foot
[297] The Regent Street store was surpassed in size by the nearby Apple Store in Covent Garden, which was surpassed in size by the Grand Central Terminal Apple Store, New York City, in December 2011
Of the 43,000 Apple employees in the United States 30,000 work at Apple Stores
Apple Store employees make above average pay for retail employees and are offered money toward college as well as gym memberships, 401k plans, healthcare plans, product discounts, and reduced price on purchase of stock
Fifth Avenue, New York City
Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture
Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune 500 company
By the time of the “1984” television commercial, Apple’s informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors
[299] According to a 2011 report in Fortune, this has resulted in a corporate culture more akin to a startup rather than a multinational corporation
As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character
Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company
Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs’s involvement often take longer than projects with it
[301] To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company
The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to individuals including Bill Atkinson,[302] Steve Capps,[303] Rod Holt,[302] Alan Kay,[304][305] Guy Kawasaki,[304][306] Al Alcorn,[307] Don Norman,[304] Rich Page,[302] and Steve Wozniak
At Apple, employees are specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise
Jobs saw this as a means of having “best-in-class” employees in every role
For instance, Ron Johnson—Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, 2011—was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores (this was done by Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management)
[308][308] Apple is also known for strictly enforcing accountability
Each project has a “directly responsible individual,” or “DRI” in Apple jargon
[300] As an example, when iOS senior vice president Scott Forstall refused to sign Apple’s official apology for numerous errors in the redesigned Maps app, he was forced to resign
[309] Unlike other major U
companies Apple provides a relatively simple compensation policy for executives that does not include perks enjoyed by other CEOs like country club fees or private use of company aircraft
The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year
In 1999 Apple retained Eight Inc
as a strategic retail design partner and began creating the Apple retail stores
Tim Kobe of Eight Inc
prepared an “Apple Retail” white paper for Jobs, outlining the ability of separate Apple retail stores to directly drive the Apple brand experience—Kobe used their recently completed work with The North Face and Nike as a basis for the white paper
[citation needed] The first two Apple Stores opened on May 19, 2001 in Tysons Corner, Virginia, and Glendale, California
More than 7,700 people visited Apple’s first two stores in the opening weekend, spending a total of US$599,000
[311] As of June 2014[update], Apple maintains 425 retail stores in fourteen countries
[312][313] In addition to Apple products, the stores sell third-party products like software titles, digital cameras, camcorders and handheld organizers
A media article published in July 2013 provided details about Apple’s “At-Home Apple Advisors” customer support program that serves as the corporation’s call center
The advisors are employed within the U
and work remotely after undergoing a four-week training program and testing period
The advisors earn between US$9 and $12 per hour and receive intensive management to ensure a high quality of customer support
The company’s manufacturing, procurement and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories
In 2011, Apple’s profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies
Cook’s catchphrase to describe his focus on the company’s operational arm is: “Nobody wants to buy sour milk”
During the Mac’s early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own
[317] This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s, beginning with Apple’s adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs
Apple has since adopted (and often co-developed) industry standards such as USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and others in its products
FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that was widely adopted across the industry after it was standardized as IEEE 1394
The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late 1990s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the 2000s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad
According to a report by the New York Times, Apple insiders “believe the vast scale of overseas factories as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers have so outpaced their American counterparts that “Made in the U
” is no longer a viable option for most Apple products”
In 2006, the Mail on Sunday reported on the working conditions of the Chinese factories where contract manufacturers Foxconn and Inventec produced the iPod
[320] The article stated that one complex of factories that assembled the iPod and other items had over 200,000 workers living and working within it
Employees regularly worked more than 60 hours per week and made around $100 per month
A little over half of the workers’ earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company
Apple immediately launched an investigation after the 2006 media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions
[324] In 2007, Apple started yearly audits of all its suppliers regarding worker’s rights, slowly raising standards and pruning suppliers that did not comply
Yearly progress reports have been published since 2008
[325] In 2011, Apple admitted that its suppliers’ child labor practices in China had worsened
The Foxconn suicides occurred between January and November 2010, when 18[327] Foxconn (Chinese: 富士康) employees attempted suicide, resulting in 14 deaths—the company was the world’s largest contract electronics manufacturer, for clients including Apple, at the time
[327][328][329] The suicides drew media attention, and employment practices at Foxconn were investigated by Apple
[330] Apple issued a public statement about the suicides, and company spokesperson Steven Dowling said:
[Apple is] saddened and upset by the recent suicides at Foxconn
A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made
The statement was released after the results from the company’s probe into its suppliers’ labor practices were published in early 2010
Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple’s own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories
[331] Apple committed to the implementation of changes following the suicides
Also in 2010, workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens
One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses
[333] After a high suicide rate in a Foxconn facility in China making iPads and iPhones, albeit a lower rate than that of China as a whole,[334] workers were forced to sign a legally binding document guaranteeing that they would not kill themselves
[335] Workers in factories producing Apple products have also been exposed to n-hexane, a neurotoxin that is a cheaper alternative than alcohol for cleaning the products
In 2013, China Labor Watch said it found violations of the law and of Apple’s working condition pledges at facilities operated by Pegatron
These violations included discrimination against ethnic minorities and women, withholding of employee pay, excessive work hours, poor living conditions, health and safety problems and pollution
A 2014 BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple’s promise to reform factory practice after the 2010 Foxconn suicides
The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees
While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since 2010, Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: “We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions”
In December 2014, the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15,000 workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple’s iPhone and iPad
According to the report, workers are pressured into 65 hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks
They are also made to reside in “primitive, dark and filthy dorms” where they sleep “on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room
” Omnipresent security personnel also routinely harass and beat the workers
In a recent class action lawsuit in California approximately 12,400 former and current Apple retail store employees alleged they should have been compensated for having to wait in line and for undergoing off-the-clock security bag searches and clearance checks when they left work for meal breaks or at the end of their shifts
[342] The unpaid search practice started in 2009 over concerns of increasing employee theft and the employees claimed the searches were not efficiently conducted
The suit alleged illegal and improper wage practices in violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act that deprived staff of wages they should have earned during what they contended was compensable time at “work”
On November 7, 2015, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California issued an order granting Apple’s Motion for Summary Judgment dismissing each and every claim brought against Apple by the employees in this case
In 2013 class action against several Silicon Valley companies, including Apple, was filed for alleged “no cold call” agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees
Following a Greenpeace protest, Apple released a statement on April 17, 2012, committing to ending its use of coal and shifting to 100% renewable clean energy
[345][346] By 2013 Apple was using 100% renewable energy to power their data centers
Overall, 75% of the company’s power came from clean renewable sources
In 2010, Climate Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible 100, which puts Apple in their top category “Striding”
[348] This was an increase from May 2008, when Climate Counts only gave Apple 11 points out of 100, which placed the company last among electronics companies, at which time Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a “stuck icon”, adding that Apple at the time was “a choice to avoid for the climate conscious consumer”
As of 2014[update], 100% of Apple’s U
operations run on renewable energy, 100% of Apple’s data centers run on renewable energy and 87% of Apple’s global operations run on renewable energy
[350] The Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) allows consumers to see the effect a product has on the environment
Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability
Every Apple tablet, notebook, desktop computer, and display that EPEAT ranks achieves a Gold rating, the highest possible
During an event on March 21, 2016, Apple provided a status update on its environmental initiative to be 100% renewable in all of its worldwide operations
Jackson, Apple’s vice president of Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives who reports directly to CEO, Tim Cook, announced that as of March 2016, 93% of Apple’s worldwide operations are powered with renewable energy
Also featured was the company’s efforts to use sustainable paper in their product packaging; 99% of all paper used by Apple in the product packaging comes from post-consumer recycled paper or sustainably-managed forests, as the company continues its move to all paper packaging for all of its products
[352] Apple working in partnership with Conservation Fund, have preserved 36,000 acres of working forests in Maine and North Carolina
Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,000,000 acres of forests in China
Featured was the company’s installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array
This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple’s Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company’s energy carbon footprint in the country
In Singapore, Apple has worked with the Singaporean government to cover the rooftops of 800 buildings in the city-state with solar panels allowing Apple’s Singapore operations to be run on 100% renewable energy
Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones
Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products
Following further campaigns by Greenpeace,[354] in 2008, Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in its complete product line
[355][356] In June 2007, Apple began replacing the cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlit LCD displays in its computers with mercury-free LED-backlit LCD displays and arsenic-free glass, starting with the upgraded MacBook Pro
[357][358][359][360] Apple offers comprehensive and transparent information about the CO2e, emissions, materials, and electrical usage concerning every product they currently produce or have sold in the past (and which they have enough data needed to produce the report), in their portfolio on their homepage
Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale
[361] In June 2009, Apple’s iPhone 3GS was free of PVC, arsenic, and BFRs
[357][362] All Apple products now have mercury-free LED-backlit LCD displays, arsenic-free glass, and non-PVC cables
All Apple products have EPEAT Gold status and beat the latest Energy Star guidelines in each product’s respective regulatory category
In October 2011, Chinese authorities ordered an Apple supplier to close part of its plant in Suzhou after residents living nearby raised significant environmental concerns
In November 2011, Apple was featured in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how “green” their products are
The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies (moving up five places from the previous year) with a score of 4
6/10 down from 4
[365] Greenpeace praises Apple’s sustainability, noting that the company exceeded its 70% global recycling goal in 2010
It continues to score well on the products rating with all Apple products now being free of PVC plastic and BFRs
However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions
[365] In January 2012, Apple requested that its cable maker, Volex, begin producing halogen-free USB and power cables
Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer
[8] It is also the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, with an estimated market capitalization of $446 billion by January 2014
[367] On February 17, 2015, Apple became the first US corporation to be valued at over $750B
[368] As of March 2016[update], Apple maintains 475 retail stores in seventeen countries, of which 207 are outside the U
,[1] as well as the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world’s largest music retailer
[369] It employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015[update][4] and 3,300 temporary full-time employees as of September 2012[update] worldwide
[citation needed]
In its fiscal year ending in September 2011, Apple Inc
reported a total of $108 billion in annual revenues—a significant increase from its 2010 revenues of $65 billion—and nearly $82 billion in cash reserves
[370] On March 19, 2012, Apple announced plans for a $2
65-per-share dividend beginning in fourth quarter of 2012, per approval by their board of directors
[371] On September 2012, Apple reached a record share price of more than $705 and closed at above 700
[372] With 936,596,000 outstanding shares (as of June 30, 2012[update]),[373]
The company’s worldwide annual revenue in 2013 totaled $170 billion
[374] In May 2013, Apple entered the top ten of the Fortune 500 list of companies for the first time, rising 11 places above its 2012 ranking to take the sixth position
[375] As of 2015[update], Apple has around $200 billion of cash equivalents, of which 90% is located outside the United States for tax purposes
Apple amassed 65% of all profits made by the eight largest worldwide smartphone manufacturers in quarter one of 2014, according to a report by Canaccord Genuity
[377] In the first quarter of 2015, the company garnered 92% of all earnings made by the eight largest global smartphone makers
Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world
According to The New York Times, in the 1980s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes
In the late 1980s Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the “Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich,” which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean
British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, 2012,[380] which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc
, were making billions of pounds of profit in the UK, but were paying an effective tax rate to the UK Treasury of only 3 percent, well below standard corporation tax
He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company, to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues
Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax
[381] In June 2014 the European Commissioner for Competition launched an investigation of Apple’s tax practices in Ireland, as part of a wider probe of multi-national companies’ tax arrangements in various European countries
As part of the Luxembourg Leaks, Apple was revealed to use the Luxembourg tax haven for tax avoidance
In 2015 Reuters reported that Apple had earnings abroad of $54
4 billion which were untaxed by the IRS
law, corporations don’t pay income tax on overseas profits unless the profits are brought into the United States
Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation
[385] In particular, Apple is known for and promotes itself as actively and aggressively enforcing its intellectual property interests
Some litigation examples include Apple v
Samsung, Apple v
Microsoft, Motorola Mobility v
, and Apple Corps v
Apple Computer
Apple has also had to defend itself against charges of violating other’s intellectual property rights
In October 2015, for example, a jury found that Apple had infringed a University of Wisconsin patent on microprocessor technology
Following the December 2015 terrorist attack in San Bernardino, California, in which 14 people were killed, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) solicited Apple to assist in “unlock[ing]” an iPhone 5C used by one of the attackers
[387] On February 16, 2016, in response to a request by the Department of Justice (DOJ), U
Magistrate Judge Sheri Pym ordered Apple to create a custom version of the iOS firmware that would allow investigators to circumvent the phone’s security features
[388] The FBI cited the All Writs Act of 1789, contending the law allows judges to compel “third parties” to carry out court orders
[387] Apple CEO Tim Cook responded in an open letter, wherein he denounced the government’s demands as constituting a “breach of privacy” with “chilling” consequences
[387][389] A hearing on the case, which had brought about the FBI–Apple encryption debate, was scheduled for March 22, 2016
[390] However, on March 21, Judge Pym permitted a motion by the DOJ to defer the hearing after the department stated it may have determined a means by which the FBI could unlock the phone without requiring Apple’s assistance
[391] On March 28, the DOJ reported back on the alternative method, stating that it had successfully retrieved data from the iPhone without Apple’s aid, prompting the agency to rescind the order obliging Apple’s assistance in the investigation
[392] The FBI did not disclose whether it had found relevant information on the phone nor the procedure by which it accessed the device’s contents
As of 2016[update], Apple is a partner of Product Red, a campaign whose mission is to prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child by 2015
[393][needs update] In June 2014[update], Apple’s contributions to the campaign reached $75 million, making the company Product Red’s largest partner
In November 2012, Apple donated $2
5 million to the American Red Cross to aid relief efforts after Hurricane Sandy
On April 14, 2016, Apple and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) announced that they have engaged in a partnership to, “help protect life on our planet
” Apple released a special page in the iTunes App Store, Apps for Earth
In the arrangement, Apple has committed that through April 24, WWF will receive 100% of the proceeds from the applications participating in the App Store via both the purchases of any paid apps and the In-App Purchases


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