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About Cryptocurrencysolutions

I've been an internet entrepreneur for about 5 years now. Father of two boys that keep me going. I'm an invester and online marketer for over 7 years now. Loving Life.

These 6 Questions Will Help You Decide How to Make Money Online

funny cats

These 6 Questions Will Help You Decide How to Make Money Online

In Moonlighting on the Internet, internet entrepreneur Shelby Larson presents the most reliable and proven ways you can create an extra paycheck for the short term and establish a continual revenue stream for the long term with your own website. In this edited excerpt, Larson reviews the six questions you must answer before attempting to start making money online.

When you decide to start on online business, you need to ask yourself a number of questions to determine whether this is the right path for you. Let’s explore six of them.

1. Do you want to work for yourself or own your own business?

While working for yourself does mean having your own business, the distinction is that you’re relying on your skills, talents, or resources for your monetization. A great example of this is being a freelance writer. You’re writing content for money, and your income is dependent on your ability to write quality content.

By contrast, if you were to choose to try your hand at eCommerce, you’d be developing channels online to sell products, either digital or physical. So you’re definitely still working for yourself, especially in the beginning, but the “thing” you’re selling doesn’t rely on your individual work, generally speaking. While you’re still putting time and effort into your company, and therefore working for yourself, your point of monetization is something outside the work you do.

2. What are your personal skills and talents?

Everyone has marketable skills. By creating a list of your skills and talents, as you evaluate different opportunities, you’ll more quickly be able to assess what things you’ll need to hire or acquire to be successful, and if that’s realistic for you at this time.

Everything should be taken into consideration. This should be a fact-based list without emotion attached to it. Even if you don’t understand how a particular skill or experience could be beneficial, write it down. Also write them down without respect to whether you enjoy doing them.

Next, rate your skills and talents based on how much you enjoy doing each of them:

Donation Box and Red Heart

  • I LOVE doing this.
  • It’s not my first choice, but I’m good at it, so if it needs to get done, I can do it.
  • I’m neutral. I could take it or leave it.
  • While I’m good at this, I don’t want to do it any longer than it takes to replace myself.
  • I’d rather eat dog food than do this skill for any length of time; it’s a deal breaker.

Being aware of the skills you bring to the table and how you feel about each of them helps you make long-term and short-term decisions and set goals. It gives you clarity about whom you might need to hire when looking at any specific business and helps you evaluate what areas you may need to finance vs. sweat equity. It also helps you make outsourcing and partnering decisions, and will greatly impact how you look at your implementation timelines and processes.

3. What are your hobbies, passions and experience?

Making money online is exciting. Making money online about a topic you love is even better. That’s when your work doesn’t feel like work. For this reason, listing your hobbies, interests, and topics so you’re aware of niches and industries you have some advanced knowledge in will be very helpful to you.

There’s no interest that doesn’t count. Here are a few ideas to help you desc

  • Hobbies. Do you have hobbies about which you’re passionate? Perhaps you belly dance or sail or are really into massively multi­player online role-playing games (MMORPG) games like World of Warcraft. Do you show dogs? Do you run a playgroup for moms? Are you an artist? Do you play any sports? Do you love to travel? Are you an avid photographer? Do you sew?
  • Education. Do you have a degree or certification in anything? Do you have a psychology degree? Are you a certified doula? Did you get a certification or training program in something else?
  • Profession. Are you or were you at any time a nurse? Have you worked as a dental hygienist? Did you work in a flower shop and can make wicked flower arrangements? Do you have experience in event planning? Have you worked in real estate off and on your whole life?
  • Everyday life. Are you a fashionista? Do you follow the current music scene? Are you interested in politics? Are you a parent? Are you a corporate executive? Are you an extreme couponer?

These are just a few examples to get your juices flowing. Trust me, if you have something you are passionate about or interested in, there are tons of other people who are, too. There very well may be a business in that industry for you, so be thorough!

US Currency: Folded bills showing faces of famous American Politicians

4. What are your financial resources?

Your first step is to take inventory of what capital you could draw from should you need or choose to. Then ask yourself: Are you good at managing money? In my opinion, whether or not you’re naturally gifted at managing money isn’t as important as knowing whether you are. So whether you’re “good” or “bad” with finances is less important than whether you have a realistic understanding of your strengths or weaknesses in this area so that if, by chance, you tend to be bad with finances, you can compensate for that weakness. If your answer is yes, then great. If your answer is no, then it needs to be on your radar so you can put a financial plan in place.

5. What are your personal limitations and lifestyle?

Time is by far one of the most precious, sought-after commodities you possess. You may not think of your time as a currency, but you absolutely must while working to make money online. For most people, their time is more valuable than money. It must be treated as the treasure it really is.

How much time do you realistically have to spend each week creating your new profit path? Can you carve out one hour per week? Two? Five? More? If the opportunity were good enough, could you temporarily devote more time to it? Remember, “no” is an acceptable answer. The point of this process is to know what resources you have available to you and how you’d get them if you needed or chose to.

Patience is another currency that’s not infinite. The more you’re balancing on your plate, the more patience will be demanded of you. Add to this list positivity, coping ability, and energy — these are all critical in all areas of our life. I bring this up because burnout is a very real possibility. Wherever you’re spending your various currencies, you’re taking away from another area of your life.

Think carefully about how you’ll stay balanced, and how you’ll know when you’re not. Sometimes you’ll choose to run with your time and resources unbalanced in the short term to get a dream off the ground. That’s OK. The point is, you’re doing it deliberately. Trust me when I tell you it’s not pleasant to crash because you’ve been running unbalanced for too long and you have no idea how to course correct.

Who’s your support system? Is it a spouse? A best friend? Does your dog help you stay balanced and happy? Who can you lean on? Who’s a resounding voice of reason who can help you evaluate what you’re doing and how you’re doing it when things get stressful? Everyone needs a support structure, so who’s on your “Team Awesome”?

6. What are your deal breakers?

The last thing to evaluate are your deal breakers and/or limitations. For instance, you may have an allotted amount of time you’re willing to devote to your profit path, and if it consistently requires more time than that, then it’s not a good match for you. Another example is travel. For some people, having to travel frequently would be a deal breaker. For others, the thought of being required to do any public speaking would kill the deal.

Go here for a free video to find out more about how people in 2016 are making money online.<=========

So what are your non-negotiable and personal limitations? Take some time to compose your own list of deal breakers. Ultimately, this deep dive into your skills and resources is about really understanding what’s important to you and what you bring to the table that you can leverage to make the most intelligent plans for moving forward.




How to Build a massive list without email and get sales * must see these insane results*

Coordinates: 37°19′55″N 122°01′52″W / 37
33182°N 122
03118°W / 37
33182; -122
is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services
Its hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, and the Apple Watch smartwatch
Apple’s consumer software includes the OS X and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, and the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites
Its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store and Mac App Store, and iCloud
Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne on April 1, 1976, to develop and sell personal computers
[5] It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc
on January 3, 1977, and was renamed as Apple Inc
on January 9, 2007, to reflect its shifted focus toward consumer electronics
Apple (NASDAQ: AAPL) joined the Dow Jones Industrial Average on March 19, 2015
Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue, the world’s largest technology company by total assets,[7] and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer
[8] In November 2014, in addition to being the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, Apple became the first U
company to be valued at over US$700 billion
[9] The company employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015[update][4] and maintains 475 retail stores in seventeen countries as of March 2016[update]
[1] It operates the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world’s largest music retailer
There are over one billion actively used Apple products worldwide as of March 2016[update]
Apple’s worldwide annual revenue totaled $233 billion for the fiscal year ending in September 2015
[3] To put this into perspective this revenue generation accounts for approximately 1
25% of the total United States GDP
[11] The company enjoys a high level of brand loyalty and, according to the 2014 edition of the Interbrand Best Global Brands report, is the world’s most valuable brand with a valuation of $118
[12] By the end of 2014, the corporation continued to receive significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors and its environmental and business practices, including the origins of source materials
Apple was established on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne[13][14] to sell the Apple I personal computer kit
The Apple I kits were computers single-handedly designed and hand-built by Wozniak[15][16] and first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club
[17] The Apple I was sold as a motherboard (with CPU, RAM, and basic textual-video chips), which was less than what is now considered a complete personal computer
[18] The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666
66 ($2,772 in 2016 dollars, adjusted for inflation)
Apple was incorporated January 3, 1977,[25] without Wayne, who sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800
[14] Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple
[26][27] During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months
Between September 1977 and September 1980 yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118m, an average annual growth rate of 533%
The Apple II, also invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire
It differed from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture
While early Apple II models used ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II
[29] The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first “killer app” of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program
[30] VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office
[30] Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place competitor to Commodore and Tandy
By the end of the 1970s, Apple had a staff of computer designers and a production line
The company introduced the Apple III in May 1980 in an attempt to compete with IBM and Microsoft in the business and corporate computing market
[33] Jobs and several Apple employees, including Jef Raskin, visited Xerox PARC in December 1979 to see the Xerox Alto
Xerox granted Apple engineers three days of access to the PARC facilities in return for the option to buy 100,000 shares (800,000 split-adjusted shares) of Apple at the pre-IPO price of $10 a share
Jobs was immediately convinced that all future computers would use a graphical user interface (GUI), and development of a GUI began for the Apple Lisa
[35] In 1982, however, he was pushed from the Lisa team due to infighting
Jobs took over Jef Raskin’s low-cost-computer project, the Macintosh
A race broke out between the Lisa team and the Macintosh team over which product would ship first
Lisa won the race in 1983 and became the first personal computer sold to the public with a GUI, but was a commercial failure due to its high price tag and limited software titles
On December 12, 1980, Apple went public at $22 per share,[37] generating more capital than any IPO since Ford Motor Company in 1956 and instantly creating more millionaires (about 300) than any company in history
In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh, the first personal computer to be sold without a programming language at all
[39] Its debut was signified by “1984”, a $1
5 million television commercial directed by Ridley Scott that aired during the third quarter of Super Bowl XVIII on January 22, 1984
[40] The commercial is now hailed as a watershed event for Apple’s success[41] and a “masterpiece”
The Macintosh initially sold well, but follow-up sales were not strong[44] due to its high price and limited range of software titles
The machine’s fortunes changed with the introduction of the LaserWriter, the first PostScript laser printer to be sold at a reasonable price, and PageMaker, an early desktop publishing package
It has been suggested that the combination of these three products were responsible for the creation of the desktop publishing market
[45] The Macintosh was particularly powerful in the desktop publishing market due to its advanced graphics capabilities, which had necessarily been built in to create the intuitive Macintosh GUI
In 1985, a power struggle developed between Jobs and CEO John Sculley, who had been hired two years earlier
[46] The Apple board of directors instructed Sculley to “contain” Jobs and limit his ability to launch expensive forays into untested products
Rather than submit to Sculley’s direction, Jobs attempted to oust him from his leadership role at Apple
Sculley found out that Jobs had been attempting to organize a coup and called a board meeting at which Apple’s board of directors sided with Sculley and removed Jobs from his managerial duties
[44] Jobs resigned from Apple and founded NeXT Inc
the same year
After Jobs’ departure, the Macintosh product line underwent a steady change of focus to higher price points, the so-called “high-right policy” named for the position on a chart of price vs
Jobs had argued the company should produce products aimed at the consumer market and aimed for a $1000 price for the Macintosh, which they were unable to meet
Newer models selling at higher price points offered higher profit margin, and appeared to have no effect on total sales as power users snapped up every increase in power
Although some worried about pricing themselves out of the market, the high-right policy was in full force by the mid-1980s, notably due to Jean-Louis Gassée’s mantra of “fifty-five or die”, referring to the 55% profit margins of the Macintosh II
This policy began to backfire in the last years of the decade as new desktop publishing programs appeared on PC clones that offered some or much of the same functionality of the Macintosh but at far lower price points
The company lost its monopoly in this market, and had already estranged many of its original consumer customer base who could no longer afford their high priced products
The Christmas season of 1989 was the first in the company’s history that saw declining sales, and led to a 20% drop in Apple’s stock price
[49] Gassée’s objections were overruled, and he was forced from the company in 1990
Later that year, Apple introduced three lower cost models, the Macintosh Classic, Macintosh LC and Macintosh IIsi, all of which saw significant sales due to pent up demand
In 1991 Apple introduced the PowerBook, replacing the “luggable” Macintosh Portable with a design that set the current shape for almost all modern laptops
The same year, Apple introduced System 7, a major upgrade to the operating system which added color to the interface and introduced new networking capabilities
It remained the architectural basis for Mac OS until 2001
The success of the PowerBook and other products brought increasing revenue
[46] For some time, Apple was doing incredibly well, introducing fresh new products and generating increasing profits in the process
The magazine MacAddict named the period between 1989 and 1991 as the “first golden age” of the Macintosh
[citation needed]
Apple believed the Apple II series was too expensive to produce and took away sales from the low-end Macintosh
[50] In 1990, Apple released the Macintosh LC, which featured a single expansion slot for the Apple IIe Card to help migrate Apple II users to the Macintosh platform;[50] the Apple IIe was discontinued in 1993
The success of Apple’s lower-cost consumer models, especially the LC, also led to cannibalization of their higher priced machines
To address this, management introduced several new brands, selling largely identical machines at different price points aimed at different markets
These were the high-end Quadra, the mid-range Centris line, and the ill-fated Performa series
This led to significant market confusion, as customers did not understand the difference between models
Apple also experimented with a number of other unsuccessful consumer targeted products during the 1990s, including digital cameras, portable CD audio players, speakers, video consoles, the eWorld online service, and TV appliances
Enormous resources were also invested in the problem-plagued Newton division based on John Sculley’s unrealistic market forecasts
[citation needed] Ultimately, none of these products helped and Apple’s market share and stock prices continued to slide
[citation needed]
Throughout this period, Microsoft continued to gain market share with Windows by focusing on delivering software to cheap commodity personal computers, while Apple was delivering a richly engineered but expensive experience
[53] Apple relied on high profit margins and never developed a clear response; instead, they sued Microsoft for using a GUI similar to the Apple Lisa in Apple Computer, Inc
Microsoft Corp
[54] The lawsuit dragged on for years before it was finally dismissed
At this time, a series of major product flops and missed deadlines sullied Apple’s reputation, and Sculley was replaced as CEO by Michael Spindler
By the early 1990s, Apple was developing alternative platforms to the Macintosh, such as A/UX
The Macintosh platform itself was becoming outdated because it was not built for multitasking and because several important software routines were programmed directly into the hardware
In addition, Apple was facing competition from OS/2 and UNIX vendors such as Sun Microsystems
The Macintosh would need to be replaced by a new platform or reworked to run on more powerful hardware
In 1994, Apple allied with IBM and Motorola in the AIM alliance with the goal of creating a new computing platform (the PowerPC Reference Platform), which would use IBM and Motorola hardware coupled with Apple software
The AIM alliance hoped that PReP’s performance and Apple’s software would leave the PC far behind and thus counter Microsoft
The same year, Apple introduced the Power Macintosh, the first of many Apple computers to use Motorola’s PowerPC processor
In 1996, Spindler was replaced by Gil Amelio as CEO
Amelio made numerous changes at Apple, including extensive layoffs and cut costs
[58] After numerous failed attempts to improve Mac OS, first with the Taligent project and later with Copland and Gershwin, Amelio chose to purchase NeXT and its NeXTSTEP operating system and bring Steve Jobs back to Apple
The NeXT deal was finalized on February 9, 1997,[60] bringing Jobs back to Apple as an advisor
On July 9, 1997, Amelio was ousted by the board of directors after overseeing a three-year record-low stock price and crippling financial losses
Jobs acted as the interim CEO and began restructuring the company’s product line; it was during this period that he identified the design talent of Jonathan Ive, and the pair worked collaboratively to rebuild Apple’s status
At the 1997 Macworld Expo, Jobs announced that Apple would join Microsoft to release new versions of Microsoft Office for the Macintosh, and that Microsoft had made a $150 million investment in non-voting Apple stock
[62] On November 10, 1997, Apple introduced the Apple Online Store, which was tied to a new build-to-order manufacturing strategy
On August 15, 1998, Apple introduced a new all-in-one computer reminiscent of the Macintosh 128K: the iMac
The iMac design team was led by Ive, who would later design the iPod and the iPhone
[65][66] The iMac featured modern technology and a unique design, and sold almost 800,000 units in its first five months
During this period,[when?] Apple completed numerous acquisitions to create a portfolio of digital production software for both professionals and consumers
In 1998, Apple purchased Macromedia’s Key Grip software project, signaling an expansion into the digital video editing market
The sale was an outcome of Macromedia’s decision to solely focus upon web development software
The product, still unfinished at the time of the sale, was renamed “Final Cut Pro” when it was launched on the retail market in April 1999
[68][69] The development of Key Grip also led to Apple’s release of the consumer video-editing product iMovie in October 1999
[70] Next, Apple successfully acquired the German company Astarte, which had developed DVD authoring technology, as well as Astarte’s corresponding products and engineering team in April 2000
Astarte’s digital tool DVDirector was subsequently transformed into the professional-oriented DVD Studio Pro software product
Apple then employed the same technology to create iDVD for the consumer market
[70] In 2002, Apple purchased Nothing Real for their advanced digital compositing application Shake,[71] as well as Emagic for the music productivity application Logic
The purchase of Emagic made Apple the first computer manufacturer to own a music software company
The acquisition was followed by the development of Apple’s consumer-level GarageBand application
[72] The release of iPhoto in the same year completed the iLife suite
Mac OS X, based on NeXT’s OPENSTEP and BSD Unix, was released on March 24, 2001 after several years of development
Aimed at consumers and professionals alike, Mac OS X aimed to combine the stability, reliability and security of Unix with the ease of use afforded by an overhauled user interface
To aid users in migrating from Mac OS 9, the new operating system allowed the use of OS 9 applications within Mac OS X via the Classic Environment
On May 19, 2001, Apple opened the first official Apple Retail Stores in Virginia and California
[75] On October 23 of the same year, Apple debuted the iPod portable digital audio player
The product, which was first sold on November 10, 2001, was phenomenally successful with over 100 million units sold within six years
[76][77] In 2003, Apple’s iTunes Store was introduced
The service offered online music downloads for $0
99 a song and integration with the iPod
The iTunes store quickly became the market leader in online music services, with over 5 billion downloads by June 19, 2008
At the Worldwide Developers Conference keynote address on June 6, 2005, Jobs announced that Apple would begin producing Intel-based Mac computers in 2006
[79] On January 10, 2006, the new MacBook Pro and iMac became the first Apple computers to use Intel’s Core Duo CPU
By August 7, 2006, Apple made the transition to Intel chips for the entire Mac product line—over one year sooner than announced
[79] The Power Mac, iBook and PowerBook brands were retired during the transition; the Mac Pro, MacBook, and MacBook Pro became their respective successors
[80][81] On April 29, 2009, The Wall Street Journal reported that Apple was building its own team of engineers to design microchips
[82] Apple also introduced Boot Camp in 2006 to help users install Windows XP or Windows Vista on their Intel Macs alongside Mac OS X
Apple’s success during this period was evident in its stock price
Between early 2003 and 2006, the price of Apple’s stock increased more than tenfold, from around $6 per share (split-adjusted) to over $80
In January 2006, Apple’s market cap surpassed that of Dell
[84] Nine years prior, Dell’s CEO Michael Dell had said that if he ran Apple he would “shut it down and give the money back to the shareholders
“[85] Although Apple’s market share in computers had grown, it remained far behind competitors using Microsoft Windows, accounting for about 8% of desktops and laptops in the US
[citation needed]
Since 2001, Apple’s design team has progressively abandoned the use of translucent colored plastics first used in the iMac G3
This design change began with the titanium-made PowerBook and was followed by the iBook’s white polycarbonate structure and the flat-panel iMac
During his keynote speech at the Macworld Expo on January 9, 2007, Jobs announced that Apple Computer, Inc
would thereafter be known as “Apple Inc
“, because the company had shifted its emphasis from computers to consumer electronics
[89][90] This event also saw the announcement of the iPhone and the Apple TV
[91][92][93][94] The following day, Apple shares hit $97
80, an all-time high at that point
In May, Apple’s share price passed the $100 mark
[95] Apple would achieve widespread success with its iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad products, which introduced innovations in mobile phones, portable music players and personal computers respectively
[96] Furthermore, by early 2007, 800,000 Final Cut Pro users were registered
In an article posted on Apple’s website on February 6, 2007, Jobs wrote that Apple would be willing to sell music on the iTunes Store without digital rights management (DRM), thereby allowing tracks to be played on third-party players, if record labels would agree to drop the technology
[98] On April 2, 2007, Apple and EMI jointly announced the removal of DRM technology from EMI’s catalog in the iTunes Store, effective in May 2007
[99] Other record labels eventually followed suit and Apple published a press release in January 2009 to announce the corresponding changes to the iTunes Store
In July 2008, Apple launched the App Store to sell third-party applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch
[101] Within a month, the store sold 60 million applications and registered an average daily revenue of $1 million, with Jobs speculating in August 2008 that the App Store could become a billion-dollar business for Apple
[102] By October 2008, Apple was the third-largest mobile handset supplier in the world due to the popularity of the iPhone
On December 16, 2008, Apple announced that 2009 would be the last year the corporation would attend the Macworld Expo, after more than 20 years of attendance, and that senior vice president of Worldwide Product Marketing Philip Schiller would deliver the 2009 keynote address in lieu of the expected Jobs
The official press release explained that Apple was “scaling back” on trade shows in general, including Macworld Tokyo and the Apple Expo in Paris, France, primarily because the enormous successes of the Apple Retail Stores and website had rendered trade shows a minor promotional channel
On January 14, 2009, an internal memo from Jobs announced that he would be taking a six-month medical leave of absence from Apple until the end of June 2009 and would spend the time focusing on his health
In the email, Jobs stated that “the curiosity over my personal health continues to be a distraction not only for me and my family, but everyone else at Apple as well”, and explained that the break would allow the company “to focus on delivering extraordinary products”
[106] Despite Jobs’s absence, Apple recorded its best non-holiday quarter (Q1 FY 2009) during the recession with revenue of $8
16 billion and profit of $1
After years of speculation and multiple rumored “leaks”, Apple announced a large screen, tablet-like media device known as the iPad on January 27, 2010
The iPad ran the same touch-based operating system as the iPhone, and many iPhone apps were compatible with the iPad
This gave the iPad a large app catalog on launch, despite very little development time before the release
Later that year on April 3, 2010, the iPad was launched in the US
It sold more than 300,000 units on its first day, and 500,000 by the end of the first week
[109] In May of the same year, Apple’s market cap exceeded that of competitor Microsoft for the first time since 1989
In June 2010, Apple released the iPhone 4,[111] which introduced video calling, multitasking, and a new uninsulated stainless steel design that acted as the phone’s antenna
Later that year, Apple again refreshed its iPod line of MP3 players by introducing a multi-touch iPod Nano, an iPod Touch with FaceTime, and an iPod Shuffle that brought back the buttons of earlier generations
[112][113][114] Additionally, on October 20, Apple updated the MacBook Air laptop, iLife suite of applications, and unveiled Mac OS X Lion, the last version with the name Mac OS X
In October 2010, Apple shares hit an all-time high, eclipsing $300
On January 6, 2011, the company opened its Mac App Store, a digital software distribution platform similar to the iOS App Store
Alongside peer entities such as Atari and Cisco Systems, Apple was featured in the documentary Something Ventured which premiered in 2011 and explored the three-decade era that led to the establishment and dominance of Silicon Valley
On January 17, 2011, Jobs announced in an internal Apple memo that he would take another medical leave of absence, for an indefinite period, to allow him to focus on his health
Chief operating officer Tim Cook assumed Jobs’s day-to-day operations at Apple, although Jobs would still remain “involved in major strategic decisions”
[119] Apple became the most valuable consumer-facing brand in the world
[120] In June 2011, Jobs surprisingly took the stage and unveiled iCloud, an online storage and syncing service for music, photos, files and software which replaced MobileMe, Apple’s previous attempt at content syncing
This would be the last product launch Jobs would attend before his death
It has been argued that Apple has achieved such efficiency in its supply chain that the company operates as a monopsony (one buyer, many sellers) and can dictate terms to its suppliers
[122][123][124] In July 2011, due to the American debt-ceiling crisis, Apple’s financial reserves were briefly larger than those of the U
On August 24, 2011, Jobs resigned his position as CEO of Apple
[126] He was replaced by Cook and Jobs became Apple’s chairman
Prior to this, Apple did not have a chairman and instead had two co-lead directors, Andrea Jung and Arthur D
Levinson, who continued with those titles until Levinson became Chairman of the Board in November
On October 5, 2011, Apple announced that Jobs had died, marking the end of an era for Apple
[128][129] The first major product announcement by Apple following Jobs’s passing occurred on January 19, 2012, when Apple’s Phil Schiller introduced iBooks Textbooks for iOS and iBook Author for Mac OS X in New York City
[130] Jobs had stated in his biography that he wanted to reinvent the textbook industry and education
From 2011 to 2012, Apple released the iPhone 4S and iPhone 5, which featured improved cameras, an “intelligent software assistant” named Siri, and cloud-sourced data with iCloud;[131][132][133] the third and fourth generation iPads, which featured Retina displays;[134][135][136] and the iPad Mini, which featured a 7
9-inch screen in contrast to the iPad’s 9
7-inch screen
[137] These launches were successful, with the iPhone 5 (released September 21, 2012) becoming Apple’s biggest iPhone launch with over 2 million pre-orders[138] and sales of 3 million iPads in three days following the launch of the iPad Mini and fourth generation iPad (released November 3, 2012)
[139] Apple also released a third-generation 13-inch MacBook Pro with a Retina display and new iMac and Mac Mini computers
On October 29, 2011, Apple purchased C3 Technologies, a mapping company, for $240 million, becoming the third mapping company Apple has purchased
[141] On January 10, 2012, Apple paid $500 million to acquire Anobit, an Israeli hardware company that developed and supplied a proprietary memory signal processing technology that improved the performance of the flash-memory used in iPhones and iPads
[142][143] On July 24, 2012, during a conference call with investors, Tim Cook said that he loved India, but that Apple was going to expect larger opportunities outside of India
Cook cited the reason as the 30% sourcing requirement from India
[clarification needed][144][145][146][147]
On August 20, 2012, Apple’s rising stock rose the company’s value to a world-record $624 billion
This beat the non-inflation-adjusted record for market capitalization set by Microsoft in 1999
[148] On August 24, 2012, a US jury ruled that Samsung should pay Apple $1
05 billion (£665m) in damages in an intellectual property lawsuit
[149] Samsung appealed the damages award, which the Court reduced by $450 million
[150] The Court further granted Samsung’s request for a new trial
[150] On November 10, 2012, Apple confirmed a global settlement that would dismiss all lawsuits between Apple and HTC up to that date, in favor of a ten-year license agreement for current and future patents between the two companies
[151] It is predicted that Apple will make $280 million a year from this deal with HTC
A previously confidential email written by Jobs a year before his death, was presented during the proceedings of the Apple Inc
Samsung Electronics Co
lawsuits and became publicly available in early April 2014
With a subject line that reads “Top 100 – A,” the email was sent only to the company’s 100 most senior employees and outlines Jobs’s vision of Apple Inc
‘s future under 10 subheadings
Notably, Jobs declares a “Holy War with Google” for 2011 and schedules a “new campus” for 2015
In March 2013, Apple filed a patent for an augmented reality (AR) system that can identify objects in a live video stream and present information corresponding to these objects through a computer-generated information layer overlaid on top of the real-world image
[154] Later in 2013, Apple acquired Embark Inc
, a small Silicon Valley-based mapping company that builds free transit apps to help smartphone users navigate public transportation in U
cities,[155] and PrimeSense, an Israeli 3D sensing company based in Tel Aviv
[156] In December 2013, Apple Inc
purchased social analytics firm Topsy
Topsy is one of a small number of firms with real-time access to the messages that appear on Twitter and can “do real-time analysis of the trends and discussions happening on Twitter”
[157] The company also made several high profile hiring decisions in 2013
On July 2, 2013, Apple recruited Paul Deneve, Belgian President and CEO of Yves Saint Laurent as a vice president reporting directly to Tim Cook
[158] A mid-October 2013 announcement revealed that Burberry executive Angela Ahrendts will commence as a senior vice president at Apple in mid-2014
Ahrendts oversaw Burberry’s digital strategy for almost eight years and, during her tenure, sales increased to about US$3
2 billion and shares gained more than threefold
At the Worldwide Developer’s Conference on June 10, 2013, Apple announced the seventh iOS operating system alongside OS X Mavericks, the tenth version of Mac OS X, and a new Internet radio service called iTunes Radio
[160][161][162] iTunes Radio, iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks were released fall 2013
[160][161][163] On December 6, 2013, Apple Inc
launched iBeacon across its 254 U
retail stores
Using Bluetooth wireless technology, iBeacon senses the user’s exact location within the Apple store and sends the user messages about products, events and other information, tailored to the user’s location
Alongside Google vice-president Vint Cerf and AT&T CEO Randall Stephenson, Cook attended a closed-door summit held by President Obama on August 8, 2013, in regard to government surveillance and the Internet in the wake of the Edward Snowden NSA incident
[165][166] On February 4, 2014, Cook met with Abdullah Gül, the President of Turkey, in Ankara to discuss the company’s involvement in the Fatih project
[167] Cook also confirmed that Turkey’s first Apple Retail Store would be opened in Istanbul in April 2014
An anonymous Apple employee revealed to the Bloomberg media publication that the opening of a Tokyo, Japan, store was planned for 2014
A Japanese analyst has stated, “For Apple, the Japanese market is appealing in terms of quantity and price
There is room to expand tablet sales and a possibility the Japanese market expands if Apple’s mobile carrier partners increase
“[169] As of June 13, 2014[update], Apple operated three stores in Tokyo
[170] On October 1, 2013, Apple India executives unveiled a plan to expand further into the Indian market, following Cook’s acknowledgment of the country in July 2013 when sales results showed that iPhone sales in India grew 400% during the second quarter of 2013
reported that the company sold 51 million iPhones in the Q1 of 2014 (an all-time quarterly record), compared to 47
8 million in the year-ago quarter
Apple also sold 26 million iPads during the quarter, also an all-time quarterly record, compared to 22
9 million in the year-ago quarter
The Company sold 4
8 million Macs, compared to 4
1 million in the year-ago quarter
[172] On May 28, 2014, Apple confirmed its intent to acquire Dr
Dre and Jimmy Iovine’s audio company Beats Electronics—producer of the Beats by Dr
Dre line of headphones and speaker products, and operator of the music streaming service Beats Music—for $3 billion, and to sell their products through Apple’s retail outlets and resellers
Iovine felt that Beats had always “belonged” with Apple, as the company modeled itself after Apple’s “unmatched ability to marry culture and technology
“[173][174][175] In August 2014, an Apple representative confirmed to the media that Anand Lal Shimpi, editor and publisher of the AnandTech website, had been recruited by Apple without elaborating on Lal Shimpi’s role
In 2016, it was revealed that Apple would be making its first original scripted series,[177] a six-episode drama about the life of Dr
Music Video director Paul Hunter will direct the series
Macs that are currently being sold are:
Apple sells a variety of computer accessories for Macs, including Thunderbolt Display, Magic Mouse, Magic Trackpad, Wireless Keyboard, Battery Charger, the AirPort wireless networking products, and Time Capsule
On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player
Several updated models have since been introduced, and the iPod brand is now the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin
More than 350 million units have shipped as of September 2012[update]
[178] Apple has partnered with Nike to offer the Nike+iPod Sports Kit, enabling runners to synchronize and monitor their runs with iTunes and the Nike+ website
Apple currently sells three variants of the iPod:
At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs introduced the long-anticipated[180] iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod
[181] The first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007 for $499 (4 GB) and $599 (8 GB) with an AT&T contract
[182] On February 5, 2008, it was updated to have 16 GB of memory, in addition to the 8 GB and 4 GB models
[183] It combined a 2
5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in handheld devices, running scaled-down versions of Apple’s Mac OS X (dubbed iPhone OS, later renamed iOS), with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail
It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather
The iPhone features a 3
5-inch (89 mm) touchscreen display, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both “b” and “g”)
A second version, the iPhone 3G, was released on July 11, 2008 with a reduced price of $199 for the 8 GB version and $299 for the 16 GB version
[184] This version added support for 3G networking and assisted-GPS navigation
The flat silver back and large antenna square of the original model were eliminated in favor of a glossy, curved black or white back
Software capabilities were improved with the release of the App Store, which provided iPhone-compatible applications to download
On April 24, 2009, the App Store[185] surpassed one billion downloads
[186] On June 8, 2009, Apple announced the iPhone 3GS
It provided an incremental update to the device, including faster internal components, support for faster 3G speeds, video recording capability, and voice control
At the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) on June 7, 2010, Apple announced the redesigned iPhone 4
[187] It featured a 960×640 display, the Apple A4 processor, a gyroscope for enhanced gaming, a 5MP camera with LED flash, front-facing VGA camera and FaceTime video calling
Shortly after its release, reception issues were discovered by consumers, due to the stainless steel band around the edge of the device, which also serves as the phone’s cellular signal and Wi-Fi antenna
The issue was corrected by a “Bumper Case” distributed by Apple for free to all owners for a few months
In June 2011, Apple overtook Nokia to become the world’s biggest smartphone maker by volume
[188] On October 4, 2011, Apple unveiled the iPhone 4S, which was first released on October 14, 2011
[189] It features the Apple A5 processor and Siri voice assistant technology, the latter of which Apple had acquired in 2010
[190] It also features an updated 8MP camera with new optics
Apple began a new accessibility feature, Made for iPhone Hearing Aids with the iPhone 4S
[191] Made for iPhone Hearing Aids feature Live Listen, it can help you hear a conversation in a noisy room or hear someone speaking across the room
[192] Apple sold 4 million iPhone 4S phones in the first three days of availability
On September 12, 2012, Apple introduced the iPhone 5
[194] It has a 4-inch display, 4G LTE connectivity, and the upgraded Apple A6 chip, among several other improvements
[195] Two million iPhones were sold in the first twenty-four hours of pre-ordering[196] and over five million handsets were sold in the first three days of its launch
[197] Upon the launch of the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C, Apple set a new record for first-weekend smartphone sales by selling over nine million devices in the first three days of its launch
[198] The release of the iPhone 5S and 5C was the first time that Apple simultaneously launched two models
A patent filed in July 2013 revealed the development of a new iPhone battery system that uses location data in combination with data on the user’s habits to moderate the handsets power settings accordingly
Apple is working towards a power management system that will provide features such as the ability of the iPhone to estimate the length of time a user will be away from a power source to modify energy usage and a detection function that adjusts the charging rate to best suit the type of power source that is being used
In a March 2014 interview, Apple designer Jonathan Ive used the iPhone as an example of Apple’s ethos of creating high-quality, life-changing products
He explained that the phones are comparatively expensive due to the intensive effort that is used to make them:
We don’t take so long and make the way we make for fiscal reasons
Quite the reverse
The body is made from a single piece of machined aluminium
The whole thing is polished first to a mirror finish and then is very finely textured, except for the Apple logo
The chamfers [smoothed-off edges] are cut with diamond-tipped cutters
The cutters don’t usually last very long, so we had to figure out a way of mass-manufacturing long-lasting ones
The camera cover is sapphire crystal
Look at the details around the sim-card slot
It’s extraordinary![61]
On September 9, 2014, Apple introduced the iPhone 6, alongside the iPhone 6 Plus that both have screen sizes over 4-inches
[201] One year later, Apple introduced the iPhone 6S, and iPhone 6S Plus, which introduced a new technology called 3D Touch, including an increase of the rear camera to 12 MP, and the FaceTime camera to 5 MP
[202] On March 21, 2016, Apple introduced the iPhone SE that has a 4-inch size last used with the 5S and has the same hardware as the 6S except for the lack of inclusion of 3D Touch
On January 27, 2010, Apple introduced their much-anticipated media tablet, the iPad, which runs a modified version of iOS
It offers multi-touch interaction with multimedia formats including newspapers, e-books, photos, videos, music, word processing documents, video games, and most existing iPhone apps using a 9
7-inch screen
[204] It also includes a mobile version of Safari for web browsing, as well as access to the App Store, iTunes Library, iBookstore, Contacts, and Notes
Content is downloadable via Wi-Fi and optional 3G service or synced through the user’s computer
[205] AT&T was initially the sole U
provider of 3G wireless access for the iPad
On March 2, 2011, Apple introduced the iPad 2, which had a faster processor and a camera on the front and back
It also added support for optional 3G service provided by Verizon in addition to AT&T
[207] The availability of the iPad 2 was initially limited as a result of a devastating earthquake and tsunami in Japan in March 2011
The third-generation iPad was released on March 7, 2012 and marketed as “the new iPad”
It added LTE service from AT&T or Verizon, an upgraded A5X processor, and Retina display
The dimensions and form factor remained relatively unchanged, with the new iPad being a fraction thicker and heavier than the previous version and featuring minor positioning changes
On October 23, 2012, Apple’s fourth-generation iPad came out, marketed as the “iPad with Retina display”
It added the upgraded A6X processor and replaced the traditional 30-pin dock connector with the all-digital Lightning connector
[210] The iPad Mini was also introduced
It featured a reduced 7
9-inch display and much of the same internal specifications as the iPad 2
On October 22, 2013, Apple introduced the iPad Air and the iPad Mini with Retina Display, both featuring a new 64-bit Apple A7 processor
The iPad Air 2 was unveiled on October 16, 2014
It added better graphics and central processing and a camera burst mode as well as minor updates
The iPad Mini 3 was unveiled at the same time
Since its launch, iPad users have downloaded over three billion apps
The total number of App Store downloads, as of June 2015[update], is over 100 billion
On September 9, 2015, Apple announced the iPad Pro, an iPad with a 12
9-inch display that supports two new accessories, the Smart Keyboard and Apple Pencil
7-inch iPad Pro was announced on March 21, 2016
The Apple Watch smartwatch was launched by Cook on September 9, 2014, and released on April 24, 2015
[217] The wearable device consists of fitness-tracking capabilities that are similar to Fitbit, and must be used in combination with an iPhone to work (only the iPhone 5, or later models, are compatible with the Apple Watch)
At the 2007 Macworld conference, Jobs demonstrated the Apple TV (previously known as the iTV),[221] a set-top video device intended to bridge the sale of content from iTunes with high-definition televisions
The device links up to a user’s TV and syncs, either via Wi-Fi or a wired network, with one computer’s iTunes library and streams content from an additional four
The Apple TV originally incorporated a 40 GB hard drive for storage, included outputs for HDMI and component video, and played video at a maximum resolution of 720p
[222] On May 31, 2007, a 160 GB hard disk drive was released alongside the existing 40 GB model
[223] A software update released on January 15, 2008 allowed media to be purchased directly from the Apple TV
In September 2009, Apple discontinued the original 40 GB Apple TV and now continues to produce and sell the 160 GB Apple TV
On September 1, 2010, Apple released a completely redesigned Apple TV
The new device is 1/4 the size, runs quieter, and replaces the need for a hard drive with media streaming from any iTunes library on the network along with 8 GB of flash memory to cache media downloaded
Like the iPad and the iPhone, Apple TV runs on an A4 processor
The memory included in the device is half of that in the iPhone 4 at 256 MB; the same as the iPad, iPhone 3GS, third and fourth-generation iPod Touch
It has HDMI out as the only video out source
Features include access to the iTunes Store to rent movies and TV shows (purchasing has been discontinued), streaming from internet video sources, including YouTube and Netflix, and media streaming from an iTunes library
Apple also reduced the price of the device to $99
A third generation of the device was introduced at an Apple event on March 7, 2012, with new features such as higher resolution (1080p) and a new user interface
At the September 9, 2015 event, Apple unveiled an overhauled Apple TV, which now runs a variant of OS X, tvOS, and contains 32GB or 64 GB of NAND Flash to store games, programs, and to cache the current media playing
The release also coincided with the opening of a separate Apple TV App Store and a new Siri Remote with a touchpad, gyroscope and microphone
Apple develops its own operating system to run on Macs, OS X, the latest version being OS X El Capitan (version 10
Apple also independently develops computer software titles for its OS X operating system
Much of the software Apple develops is bundled with its computers
An example of this is the consumer-oriented iLife software package that bundles iMovie, iPhoto and GarageBand
For presentation, page layout and word processing, iWork is available, which includes Keynote, Pages, and Numbers
iTunes, QuickTime media player, and Software Update are available as free downloads for both OS X and Windows
Apple also offers a range of professional software titles
Their range of server software includes the operating system OS X Server; Apple Remote Desktop, a remote systems management application; and Xsan, a Storage Area Network file system
For the professional creative market, there is Final Cut Pro, a video production suite; Logic Pro, a comprehensive music toolkit; and Motion, an advanced effects composition program
Apple also offers online services with iCloud, which provides cloud storage and syncing for a wide range of data, including email, contacts, calendars, photos and documents
It also offers iOS device backup, and is able to integrate directly with third-party apps for even greater functionality
iCloud is the fourth generation of online services provided by Apple, and was preceded by MobileMe,
Mac and iTools, all which met varying degrees of success
According to the Sydney Morning Herald, Apple wants to start producing an electric car with autonomous driving as soon as 2020
Apple has made efforts to recruit battery development engineers and other electric automobile engineers from A123 Systems, LG Chem, Samsung Electronics, Panasonic, Toshiba, Johnson Controls and Tesla Motors
According to Steve Jobs, the company’s name was inspired by his visit to an apple farm while on a fruitarian diet
Jobs thought the name “Apple” was “fun, spirited and not intimidating”
Apple’s first logo, designed by Ron Wayne, depicts Sir Isaac Newton sitting under an apple tree
It was almost immediately replaced by Rob Janoff’s “rainbow Apple”, the now-familiar rainbow-colored silhouette of an apple with a bite taken out of it
Janoff presented Jobs with several different monochromatic themes for the “bitten” logo, and Jobs immediately took a liking to it
However, Jobs insisted that the logo be colorized to humanize the company
[230][231] The logo was designed with a bite so that it would not be confused with a cherry
[232] The colored stripes were conceived to make the logo more accessible, and to represent the fact the Apple II could generate graphics in color
[232] This logo is often erroneously referred to as a tribute to Alan Turing, with the bite mark a reference to his method of suicide
[233][234] Both Janoff and Apple deny any homage to Turing in the design of the logo
On August 27, 1999[228] (the year following the introduction of the iMac G3), Apple officially dropped the rainbow scheme and began to use monochromatic logos nearly identical in shape to the previous rainbow incarnation
An Aqua-themed version of the monochrome logo was used from 1999 to 2003, and a glass-themed version was used from 2007 to 2013
Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were Beatles fans,[237][238] but Apple Inc
had name and logo trademark issues with Apple Corps Ltd
, a multimedia company started by the Beatles in 1967
This resulted in a series of lawsuits and tension between the two companies
These issues ended with settling of their most recent lawsuit in 2007
[citation needed]
Apple’s first slogan, “Byte into an Apple”, was coined in the late 1970s
[239] From 1997 to 2002, the slogan “Think Different” was used in advertising campaigns, and is still closely associated with Apple
[240] Apple also has slogans for specific product lines — for example, “iThink, therefore iMac” was used in 1998 to promote the iMac,[241] and “Say hello to iPhone” has been used in iPhone advertisements
[242] “Hello” was also used to introduce the original Macintosh, Newton, iMac (“hello (again)”), and iPod
From the introduction of the Macintosh in 1984 with the 1984 Super Bowl commercial to the more modern ‘Get a Mac’ adverts, Apple has been recognized in for its efforts towards effective advertising and marketing for its products
However, claims made by later campaigns were criticized, particularly the 2005 Power Mac ads
[244][245][246] Apple’s product commercials gained a lot of attention as a result of their eye-popping graphics and catchy tunes
[247] Musicians who benefited from an improved profile as a result of their songs being included on Apple commercials include Canadian singer Feist with the song “1234” and Yael Naïm with the song “New Soul”
“The scenes I witnessed at the opening of the new Apple store in London’s Covent Garden were more like an evangelical prayer meeting than a chance to buy a phone or a laptop
Apple’s high level of brand loyalty is considered unusual for any product
Apple evangelists were actively engaged by the company at one time, but this was after the phenomenon had already been firmly established
Apple evangelist Guy Kawasaki has called the brand fanaticism “something that was stumbled upon,”[249] while Ive explained in 2014 that “People have an incredibly personal relationship” with Apple’s products
[61] Apple Store openings can draw crowds of thousands, with some waiting in line as much as a day before the opening or flying in from other countries for the event
[250] The opening of New York City’s Fifth Avenue “Cube” store had a line half a mile long; a few Mac fans used the setting to propose marriage
[251] The line for the Ginza opening in Tokyo was estimated to include thousands of people and exceeded eight city blocks
[252] The high level of brand loyalty has been criticized and ridiculed, applying the epithet “Apple fanboy” and mocking the lengthy lines before a product launch
[253] An internal memo leaked in 2015 suggested the company planned to discourage long lines and direct customers to purchase its products on its website
Fortune magazine named Apple the most admired company in the United States in 2008, and in the world from 2008 to 2012
[255][256][257][258][259] On September 30, 2013, Apple surpassed Coca-Cola to become the world’s most valuable brand in the Omnicom Group’s “Best Global Brands” report
[260] Boston Consulting Group has ranked Apple as the world’s most innovative brand every year since 2005
John Sculley told The Guardian newspaper in 1997: “People talk about technology, but Apple was a marketing company
It was the marketing company of the decade
“[262] Research in 2002 by NetRatings indicate that the average Apple consumer was usually more affluent and better educated than other PC company consumers
The research indicated that this correlation could stem from the fact that on average Apple Inc
products were more expensive than other PC products
In response to a query about the devotion of loyal Apple consumers, Jonathan Ive responded:
What people are responding to is much bigger than the object
They are responding to something rare—a group of people who do more than simply make something work, they make the very best products they possibly can
It’s a demonstration against thoughtlessness and carelessness
The Apple website home page has been used to commemorate, or pay tribute to, milestones and events outside of Apple’s product offerings:
‘s world corporate headquarters are located in the middle of Silicon Valley, at 1–6 Infinite Loop, Cupertino, California
This Apple campus has six buildings that total 850,000 square feet (79,000 m2) and was built in 1993 by Sobrato Development Cos
Apple has a satellite campus in neighboring Sunnyvale, California, where it houses a testing and research laboratory
[274] AppleInsider published article in March 2014 claiming that Apple has a tucked away a top-secret facility where is developing the SG5 electric vehicle project codenamed “Titan” under the shell company name SixtyEight Research
In 2006, Apple announced its intention to build a second campus in Cupertino about 1 mile (1
6 km) east of the current campus and next to Interstate 280
[276] The new campus building will be designed by Norman Foster
[277] The Cupertino City Council approved the proposed “spaceship” design campus on October 15, 2013, after a 2011 presentation by Jobs detailing the architectural design of the new building and its environs
The new campus is planned to house up to 13,000 employees in one central, four-storied, circular building surrounded by extensive landscape
It will feature a café with room for 3,000 sitting people and parking underground as well as in a parking structure
8 million square foot facility will also include Jobs’s original designs for a fitness center and a corporate auditorium
Apple’s headquarters for Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) are located in Cork in the south of Ireland
[279][280][281][282][283][284][285] The facility, which opened in 1980, was Apple’s first location outside of the United States
[286] Apple Sales International, which deals with all of Apple’s international sales outside of the USA, is located at Apple’s campus in Cork[287] along with Apple Distribution International, which similarly deals with Apple’s international distribution network
[288] On April 20, 2012, Apple added 500 new jobs at its European headquarters, increasing the total workforce from around 2,800 to 3,300 employees
[278][280][289] The company will build a new office block on its Hollyhill Campus to accommodate the additional staff
[290] Its UK headquarters is at Stockley Park on the outskirts of London
In February 2015, Apple opened their new 180,000-square-foot headquarters in Herzliya, Israel, which will accommodate approximately 800 employees
This opening was Apple’s third office located within Israel; the first, also in Herzliya, was obtained as part of the Anobit acquisition, and the other is a research center in Haifa
Apple has 475 retail stores (as of March 2016[update]) in 17 countries[1] and an online store available in 39 countries
[294] Each store is designed to suit the needs of the location and regulatory authorities
Apple has received numerous architectural awards for its store designs, particularly its midtown Manhattan location on Fifth Avenue
The Apple Store in Regent Street, London, was the first to open in Europe in November 2004, and is the most profitable shop in London with the highest sales per square foot, taking £60,000,000 pa, or £2,000 per square foot
[297] The Regent Street store was surpassed in size by the nearby Apple Store in Covent Garden, which was surpassed in size by the Grand Central Terminal Apple Store, New York City, in December 2011
Of the 43,000 Apple employees in the United States 30,000 work at Apple Stores
Apple Store employees make above average pay for retail employees and are offered money toward college as well as gym memberships, 401k plans, healthcare plans, product discounts, and reduced price on purchase of stock
Fifth Avenue, New York City
Apple was one of several highly successful companies founded in the 1970s that bucked the traditional notions of corporate culture
Jobs often walked around the office barefoot even after Apple became a Fortune 500 company
By the time of the “1984” television commercial, Apple’s informal culture had become a key trait that differentiated it from its competitors
[299] According to a 2011 report in Fortune, this has resulted in a corporate culture more akin to a startup rather than a multinational corporation
As the company has grown and been led by a series of differently opinionated chief executives, it has arguably lost some of its original character
Nonetheless, it has maintained a reputation for fostering individuality and excellence that reliably attracts talented workers, particularly after Jobs returned to the company
Numerous Apple employees have stated that projects without Jobs’s involvement often take longer than projects with it
[301] To recognize the best of its employees, Apple created the Apple Fellows program which awards individuals who make extraordinary technical or leadership contributions to personal computing while at the company
The Apple Fellowship has so far been awarded to individuals including Bill Atkinson,[302] Steve Capps,[303] Rod Holt,[302] Alan Kay,[304][305] Guy Kawasaki,[304][306] Al Alcorn,[307] Don Norman,[304] Rich Page,[302] and Steve Wozniak
At Apple, employees are specialists who are not exposed to functions outside their area of expertise
Jobs saw this as a means of having “best-in-class” employees in every role
For instance, Ron Johnson—Senior Vice President of Retail Operations until November 1, 2011—was responsible for site selection, in-store service, and store layout, yet had no control of the inventory in his stores (this was done by Cook, who had a background in supply-chain management)
[308][308] Apple is also known for strictly enforcing accountability
Each project has a “directly responsible individual,” or “DRI” in Apple jargon
[300] As an example, when iOS senior vice president Scott Forstall refused to sign Apple’s official apology for numerous errors in the redesigned Maps app, he was forced to resign
[309] Unlike other major U
companies Apple provides a relatively simple compensation policy for executives that does not include perks enjoyed by other CEOs like country club fees or private use of company aircraft
The company typically grants stock options to executives every other year
In 1999 Apple retained Eight Inc
as a strategic retail design partner and began creating the Apple retail stores
Tim Kobe of Eight Inc
prepared an “Apple Retail” white paper for Jobs, outlining the ability of separate Apple retail stores to directly drive the Apple brand experience—Kobe used their recently completed work with The North Face and Nike as a basis for the white paper
[citation needed] The first two Apple Stores opened on May 19, 2001 in Tysons Corner, Virginia, and Glendale, California
More than 7,700 people visited Apple’s first two stores in the opening weekend, spending a total of US$599,000
[311] As of June 2014[update], Apple maintains 425 retail stores in fourteen countries
[312][313] In addition to Apple products, the stores sell third-party products like software titles, digital cameras, camcorders and handheld organizers
A media article published in July 2013 provided details about Apple’s “At-Home Apple Advisors” customer support program that serves as the corporation’s call center
The advisors are employed within the U
and work remotely after undergoing a four-week training program and testing period
The advisors earn between US$9 and $12 per hour and receive intensive management to ensure a high quality of customer support
The company’s manufacturing, procurement and logistics enable it to execute massive product launches without having to maintain large, profit-sapping inventories
In 2011, Apple’s profit margins were 40 percent, compared with between 10 and 20 percent for most other hardware companies
Cook’s catchphrase to describe his focus on the company’s operational arm is: “Nobody wants to buy sour milk”
During the Mac’s early history Apple generally refused to adopt prevailing industry standards for hardware, instead creating their own
[317] This trend was largely reversed in the late 1990s, beginning with Apple’s adoption of the PCI bus in the 7500/8500/9500 Power Macs
Apple has since adopted (and often co-developed) industry standards such as USB, AGP, HyperTransport, Wi-Fi, and others in its products
FireWire is an Apple-originated standard that was widely adopted across the industry after it was standardized as IEEE 1394
The company advertised its products as being made in America until the late 1990s; however, as a result of outsourcing initiatives in the 2000s, almost all of its manufacturing is now handled abroad
According to a report by the New York Times, Apple insiders “believe the vast scale of overseas factories as well as the flexibility, diligence and industrial skills of foreign workers have so outpaced their American counterparts that “Made in the U
” is no longer a viable option for most Apple products”
In 2006, the Mail on Sunday reported on the working conditions of the Chinese factories where contract manufacturers Foxconn and Inventec produced the iPod
[320] The article stated that one complex of factories that assembled the iPod and other items had over 200,000 workers living and working within it
Employees regularly worked more than 60 hours per week and made around $100 per month
A little over half of the workers’ earnings was required to pay for rent and food from the company
Apple immediately launched an investigation after the 2006 media report, and worked with their manufacturers to ensure acceptable working conditions
[324] In 2007, Apple started yearly audits of all its suppliers regarding worker’s rights, slowly raising standards and pruning suppliers that did not comply
Yearly progress reports have been published since 2008
[325] In 2011, Apple admitted that its suppliers’ child labor practices in China had worsened
The Foxconn suicides occurred between January and November 2010, when 18[327] Foxconn (Chinese: 富士康) employees attempted suicide, resulting in 14 deaths—the company was the world’s largest contract electronics manufacturer, for clients including Apple, at the time
[327][328][329] The suicides drew media attention, and employment practices at Foxconn were investigated by Apple
[330] Apple issued a public statement about the suicides, and company spokesperson Steven Dowling said:
[Apple is] saddened and upset by the recent suicides at Foxconn
A team from Apple is independently evaluating the steps they are taking to address these tragic events and we will continue our ongoing inspections of the facilities where our products are made
The statement was released after the results from the company’s probe into its suppliers’ labor practices were published in early 2010
Foxconn was not specifically named in the report, but Apple identified a series of serious labor violations of labor laws, including Apple’s own rules, and some child labor existed in a number of factories
[331] Apple committed to the implementation of changes following the suicides
Also in 2010, workers in China planned to sue iPhone contractors over poisoning by a cleaner used to clean LCD screens
One worker claimed that he and his coworkers had not been informed of possible occupational illnesses
[333] After a high suicide rate in a Foxconn facility in China making iPads and iPhones, albeit a lower rate than that of China as a whole,[334] workers were forced to sign a legally binding document guaranteeing that they would not kill themselves
[335] Workers in factories producing Apple products have also been exposed to n-hexane, a neurotoxin that is a cheaper alternative than alcohol for cleaning the products
In 2013, China Labor Watch said it found violations of the law and of Apple’s working condition pledges at facilities operated by Pegatron
These violations included discrimination against ethnic minorities and women, withholding of employee pay, excessive work hours, poor living conditions, health and safety problems and pollution
A 2014 BBC investigation found excessive hours and other problems persisted, despite Apple’s promise to reform factory practice after the 2010 Foxconn suicides
The Pegatron factory was once again the subject of review, as reporters gained access to the working conditions inside through recruitment as employees
While the BBC maintained that the experiences of its reporters showed that labor violations were continuing since 2010, Apple publicly disagreed with the BBC and stated: “We are aware of no other company doing as much as Apple to ensure fair and safe working conditions”
In December 2014, the Institute for Global Labour and Human Rights published a report which documented inhumane conditions for the 15,000 workers at a Zhen Ding Technology factory in Shenzhen, China, which serves as a major supplier of circuit boards for Apple’s iPhone and iPad
According to the report, workers are pressured into 65 hour work weeks which leaves them so exhausted that they often sleep during lunch breaks
They are also made to reside in “primitive, dark and filthy dorms” where they sleep “on plywood, with six to ten workers in each crowded room
” Omnipresent security personnel also routinely harass and beat the workers
In a recent class action lawsuit in California approximately 12,400 former and current Apple retail store employees alleged they should have been compensated for having to wait in line and for undergoing off-the-clock security bag searches and clearance checks when they left work for meal breaks or at the end of their shifts
[342] The unpaid search practice started in 2009 over concerns of increasing employee theft and the employees claimed the searches were not efficiently conducted
The suit alleged illegal and improper wage practices in violation of the Fair Labor Standards Act that deprived staff of wages they should have earned during what they contended was compensable time at “work”
On November 7, 2015, the United States District Court for the Northern District of California issued an order granting Apple’s Motion for Summary Judgment dismissing each and every claim brought against Apple by the employees in this case
In 2013 class action against several Silicon Valley companies, including Apple, was filed for alleged “no cold call” agreements which restrained the recruitment of high-tech employees
Following a Greenpeace protest, Apple released a statement on April 17, 2012, committing to ending its use of coal and shifting to 100% renewable clean energy
[345][346] By 2013 Apple was using 100% renewable energy to power their data centers
Overall, 75% of the company’s power came from clean renewable sources
In 2010, Climate Counts, a nonprofit organization dedicated to directing consumers toward the greenest companies, gave Apple a score of 52 points out of a possible 100, which puts Apple in their top category “Striding”
[348] This was an increase from May 2008, when Climate Counts only gave Apple 11 points out of 100, which placed the company last among electronics companies, at which time Climate Counts also labeled Apple with a “stuck icon”, adding that Apple at the time was “a choice to avoid for the climate conscious consumer”
As of 2014[update], 100% of Apple’s U
operations run on renewable energy, 100% of Apple’s data centers run on renewable energy and 87% of Apple’s global operations run on renewable energy
[350] The Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT) allows consumers to see the effect a product has on the environment
Each product receives a Gold, Silver, or Bronze rank depending on its efficiency and sustainability
Every Apple tablet, notebook, desktop computer, and display that EPEAT ranks achieves a Gold rating, the highest possible
During an event on March 21, 2016, Apple provided a status update on its environmental initiative to be 100% renewable in all of its worldwide operations
Jackson, Apple’s vice president of Environment, Policy and Social Initiatives who reports directly to CEO, Tim Cook, announced that as of March 2016, 93% of Apple’s worldwide operations are powered with renewable energy
Also featured was the company’s efforts to use sustainable paper in their product packaging; 99% of all paper used by Apple in the product packaging comes from post-consumer recycled paper or sustainably-managed forests, as the company continues its move to all paper packaging for all of its products
[352] Apple working in partnership with Conservation Fund, have preserved 36,000 acres of working forests in Maine and North Carolina
Another partnership announced is with the World Wildlife Fund to preserve up to 1,000,000 acres of forests in China
Featured was the company’s installation of a 40 MW solar power plant in the Sichuan province of China that was tailor made to coexist with the indigenous yaks that eat hay produced on the land, by raising the panels to be several feet off of the ground so the yaks and their feed would be unharmed grazing beneath the array
This installation alone compensates for more than all of the energy used in Apple’s Stores and Offices in the whole of China, negating the company’s energy carbon footprint in the country
In Singapore, Apple has worked with the Singaporean government to cover the rooftops of 800 buildings in the city-state with solar panels allowing Apple’s Singapore operations to be run on 100% renewable energy
Liam was introduced to the world, an advanced robotic disassembler and sorter designed by Apple Engineers in California specifically for recycling outdated or broken iPhones
Reuses and recycles parts from traded in products
Following further campaigns by Greenpeace,[354] in 2008, Apple became the first electronics manufacturer to fully eliminate all polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in its complete product line
[355][356] In June 2007, Apple began replacing the cold cathode fluorescent lamp (CCFL) backlit LCD displays in its computers with mercury-free LED-backlit LCD displays and arsenic-free glass, starting with the upgraded MacBook Pro
[357][358][359][360] Apple offers comprehensive and transparent information about the CO2e, emissions, materials, and electrical usage concerning every product they currently produce or have sold in the past (and which they have enough data needed to produce the report), in their portfolio on their homepage
Allowing consumers to make informed purchasing decisions on the products they offer for sale
[361] In June 2009, Apple’s iPhone 3GS was free of PVC, arsenic, and BFRs
[357][362] All Apple products now have mercury-free LED-backlit LCD displays, arsenic-free glass, and non-PVC cables
All Apple products have EPEAT Gold status and beat the latest Energy Star guidelines in each product’s respective regulatory category
In October 2011, Chinese authorities ordered an Apple supplier to close part of its plant in Suzhou after residents living nearby raised significant environmental concerns
In November 2011, Apple was featured in Greenpeace’s Guide to Greener Electronics, which ranks electronics manufacturers on sustainability, climate and energy policy, and how “green” their products are
The company ranked fourth of fifteen electronics companies (moving up five places from the previous year) with a score of 4
6/10 down from 4
[365] Greenpeace praises Apple’s sustainability, noting that the company exceeded its 70% global recycling goal in 2010
It continues to score well on the products rating with all Apple products now being free of PVC plastic and BFRs
However, the guide criticizes Apple on the Energy criteria for not seeking external verification of its greenhouse gas emissions data and for not setting out any targets to reduce emissions
[365] In January 2012, Apple requested that its cable maker, Volex, begin producing halogen-free USB and power cables
Apple is the world’s largest information technology company by revenue and the world’s second-largest mobile phone manufacturer
[8] It is also the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, with an estimated market capitalization of $446 billion by January 2014
[367] On February 17, 2015, Apple became the first US corporation to be valued at over $750B
[368] As of March 2016[update], Apple maintains 475 retail stores in seventeen countries, of which 207 are outside the U
,[1] as well as the online Apple Store and iTunes Store, the latter of which is the world’s largest music retailer
[369] It employs 115,000 permanent full-time employees as of July 2015[update][4] and 3,300 temporary full-time employees as of September 2012[update] worldwide
[citation needed]
In its fiscal year ending in September 2011, Apple Inc
reported a total of $108 billion in annual revenues—a significant increase from its 2010 revenues of $65 billion—and nearly $82 billion in cash reserves
[370] On March 19, 2012, Apple announced plans for a $2
65-per-share dividend beginning in fourth quarter of 2012, per approval by their board of directors
[371] On September 2012, Apple reached a record share price of more than $705 and closed at above 700
[372] With 936,596,000 outstanding shares (as of June 30, 2012[update]),[373]
The company’s worldwide annual revenue in 2013 totaled $170 billion
[374] In May 2013, Apple entered the top ten of the Fortune 500 list of companies for the first time, rising 11 places above its 2012 ranking to take the sixth position
[375] As of 2015[update], Apple has around $200 billion of cash equivalents, of which 90% is located outside the United States for tax purposes
Apple amassed 65% of all profits made by the eight largest worldwide smartphone manufacturers in quarter one of 2014, according to a report by Canaccord Genuity
[377] In the first quarter of 2015, the company garnered 92% of all earnings made by the eight largest global smartphone makers
Apple has created subsidiaries in low-tax places such as Ireland, the Netherlands, Luxembourg and the British Virgin Islands to cut the taxes it pays around the world
According to The New York Times, in the 1980s Apple was among the first tech companies to designate overseas salespeople in high-tax countries in a manner that allowed the company to sell on behalf of low-tax subsidiaries on other continents, sidestepping income taxes
In the late 1980s Apple was a pioneer of an accounting technique known as the “Double Irish with a Dutch sandwich,” which reduces taxes by routing profits through Irish subsidiaries and the Netherlands and then to the Caribbean
British Conservative Party Member of Parliament Charlie Elphicke published research on October 30, 2012,[380] which showed that some multinational companies, including Apple Inc
, were making billions of pounds of profit in the UK, but were paying an effective tax rate to the UK Treasury of only 3 percent, well below standard corporation tax
He followed this research by calling on the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne to force these multinationals, which also included Google and The Coca-Cola Company, to state the effective rate of tax they pay on their UK revenues
Elphicke also said that government contracts should be withheld from multinationals who do not pay their fair share of UK tax
[381] In June 2014 the European Commissioner for Competition launched an investigation of Apple’s tax practices in Ireland, as part of a wider probe of multi-national companies’ tax arrangements in various European countries
As part of the Luxembourg Leaks, Apple was revealed to use the Luxembourg tax haven for tax avoidance
In 2015 Reuters reported that Apple had earnings abroad of $54
4 billion which were untaxed by the IRS
law, corporations don’t pay income tax on overseas profits unless the profits are brought into the United States
Apple has been a participant in various legal proceedings and claims since it began operation
[385] In particular, Apple is known for and promotes itself as actively and aggressively enforcing its intellectual property interests
Some litigation examples include Apple v
Samsung, Apple v
Microsoft, Motorola Mobility v
, and Apple Corps v
Apple Computer
Apple has also had to defend itself against charges of violating other’s intellectual property rights
In October 2015, for example, a jury found that Apple had infringed a University of Wisconsin patent on microprocessor technology
Following the December 2015 terrorist attack in San Bernardino, California, in which 14 people were killed, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) solicited Apple to assist in “unlock[ing]” an iPhone 5C used by one of the attackers
[387] On February 16, 2016, in response to a request by the Department of Justice (DOJ), U
Magistrate Judge Sheri Pym ordered Apple to create a custom version of the iOS firmware that would allow investigators to circumvent the phone’s security features
[388] The FBI cited the All Writs Act of 1789, contending the law allows judges to compel “third parties” to carry out court orders
[387] Apple CEO Tim Cook responded in an open letter, wherein he denounced the government’s demands as constituting a “breach of privacy” with “chilling” consequences
[387][389] A hearing on the case, which had brought about the FBI–Apple encryption debate, was scheduled for March 22, 2016
[390] However, on March 21, Judge Pym permitted a motion by the DOJ to defer the hearing after the department stated it may have determined a means by which the FBI could unlock the phone without requiring Apple’s assistance
[391] On March 28, the DOJ reported back on the alternative method, stating that it had successfully retrieved data from the iPhone without Apple’s aid, prompting the agency to rescind the order obliging Apple’s assistance in the investigation
[392] The FBI did not disclose whether it had found relevant information on the phone nor the procedure by which it accessed the device’s contents
As of 2016[update], Apple is a partner of Product Red, a campaign whose mission is to prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child by 2015
[393][needs update] In June 2014[update], Apple’s contributions to the campaign reached $75 million, making the company Product Red’s largest partner
In November 2012, Apple donated $2
5 million to the American Red Cross to aid relief efforts after Hurricane Sandy
On April 14, 2016, Apple and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) announced that they have engaged in a partnership to, “help protect life on our planet
” Apple released a special page in the iTunes App Store, Apps for Earth
In the arrangement, Apple has committed that through April 24, WWF will receive 100% of the proceeds from the applications participating in the App Store via both the purchases of any paid apps and the In-App Purchases

How to Build a massive list without email and get sales!

Halo: Reach is a first-person shooter video game developed by Bungie and published by Microsoft Game Studios for the Xbox 360 home video game console
The sixth installment in the Halo series, Reach was released worldwide in September 2010
The game takes place in the year 2552, where humanity is locked in a war with the alien Covenant
Players control Noble Six, a member of an elite supersoldier squad, when the human world known as Reach falls under Covenant attack
After releasing Halo 3 in 2007, Bungie split into teams to develop two different games—what would become Halo 3: ODST and Reach
The developers decided to create a prequel to the original Halo game trilogy, freeing themselves from the obligation of addressing old story threads
As the game would take place on a human world doomed to be destroyed, they focused on making the environment a character unto itself
Longtime Halo composers Martin O’Donnell and Michael Salvatori returned to compose Reach’s music, aiming for a more somber sound to match the story
Reach was announced at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2009 in Los Angeles, California, and the first in-engine trailer was shown at the 2009 Spike Video Game Awards
Players who purchased ODST were eligible to participate in a Reach multiplayer beta in May 2010; the beta allowed Bungie to gain player feedback for fixing bugs and making gameplay tweaks before shipping the final version
Microsoft gave Reach its biggest game marketing budget yet and created award-winning live-action commercials, action figures, and interactive media to promote the game
The game grossed US$200 million on its launch day, setting a new record for the franchise
Reach sold well in most territories, moving more than three million units its first month in North America
Critical reception was positive; reviewers from publications such as GamePro, IGN, and Official Xbox Magazine called it the best Halo title yet
Critics generally praised the game’s graphics and sound, but the plot and characters were less positively received
Reach was Bungie’s final Halo game; subsequent games have been overseen by Microsoft subsidiary 343 Industries
Halo: Reach is a first-person shooter in which players predominantly experience gameplay from a first-person perspective; the game perspective switches to third-person when using certain weapons and vehicles
[1]:2–5 Gameplay is more similar to Halo: Combat Evolved than later games in the series
[2] The player’s head-up display displays and tracks a player’s current weapons, abilities, and health; it also contains a compass and a “motion tracker” that registers moving allies, enemies, and vehicles in a certain radius of the player
The HUD changes when the player pilots aircraft and spacecraft
In the game’s campaign, which can be played alone or cooperatively, players assume the role of Noble Six, a supersoldier engaged in combat with an alien collective known as the Covenant
[3] The Covenant come in eight distinct varieties with different ranks and classes for each type; for example, Elites are the leaders of a group, while Grunts are less intelligent and only dangerous in large groups
[1]:11 The player is equipped with a recharging energy shield that absorbs damage from weapons, fire and impacts
When the energy shield is depleted, the player loses health
When the player’s health reaches zero, the character dies and the game reloads from a saved checkpoint
Health is replenished using health packs scattered throughout Reach’s levels
[2] The campaign’s encounters with enemies are typically large, open spaces with weapons caches, cover from enemy fire and strategic vantage points
[4] New to the Halo series are dogfight sequences set in space
Reach features updated versions of old weapons, plus new weapons fulfilling various combat roles
[6] In Halo 3, players can carry single-use equipment power-ups that offer temporary offensive or defensive advantages
[7][8] This system of single-use equipment is replaced in Reach by reusable and persistent armor abilities that remain with a character until they are replaced
[9] The abilities are a jetpack; active camouflage; sprint; hologram, which creates a facsimile of the player running towards a target point; drop shield, which creates a bubble that heals those inside and protects them from a limited amount of damage; and armor lock, which immobilizes the player but grants invincibility for a brief period of time
When playing as Covenant Elites, players also have access to an evade armor ability
Reach supports player-versus-player multiplayer through splitscreen on a single Xbox 360, local networks (System Link), and the Xbox Live service
The game includes standard multiplayer modes such as “slayer” and capture the flag, as well as gametypes new to the franchise
In “headhunter”, players drop skulls upon death, which other players can pick up and deposit at special zones for points
[11] When players die, all their accumulated skulls are dropped
“Stockpile” has teams race to collect neutral flags, holding them at capture points every minute for points
“Generator defense” pits three human supersoldiers, or Spartans, against three Covenant soldiers called Elites
The Elites’ objective is to destroy three generators, while the Spartans defend the installation
After every round the players switch roles
“Invasion” is a six versus six mode with three squads of two on each team
[12] The gametype matches Spartans against Elites; Elites vie for control of territories to disable a shield guarding a navigation core
Once the shield is disabled, they must transfer the core to a dropship; the Spartans must prevent this
As the game progresses, new vehicles and areas of the map become open
Alongside other multiplayer options is “firefight”, where players take on increasingly difficult waves of foes in a game of survival
Players can customize the firefight options, including the number and types of enemies
Firefight versus allows a player-controlled Elite team to try to stop a Spartan team from scoring points
Game modes like generator defense are also playable in firefight
Also included with Reach is “Forge”, a level editor
Players can edit the default multiplayer maps and a large empty map known as “Forge World”, adding or modifying spawn points, weapons and items
Objects may be phased into other objects, and can also be snapped to specific orientations
[16] Other included features are the “theater”, where players can watch saved films of their games and take screenshots and video clips for posterity, and the file share, where players can upload their screenshots, films, custom maps, and gametypes for public viewing
Reach takes place in a futuristic science fiction setting; the year is 2552, shortly before the events of the video game Halo: Combat Evolved,[17] and during the events of the novel Halo: The Fall of Reach
Humans, under the auspices of the United Nations Space Command (UNSC), have been waging a long war against a collective of alien races known as the Covenant
By the events of Reach, almost all of humanity’s interstellar colonies have fallen
Reach itself is an Earthlike colony that serves as the UNSC’s main military hub
The colony is home to over 700 million civilians in addition to the military presence
The game follows the actions of “Noble Team”, a UNSC special operations unit composed of elite supersoldiers known as Spartans
[19] Players assume the role of a new addition to the team identified by the call sign Noble Six
Noble Team’s leader is Carter-A259, a no-nonsense soldier
His second-in-command, Kat-B320, has a bionic arm; together, Carter and Kat are the only remaining original members of Noble Team
The other current members include heavy weapons specialist Jorge-052, assault specialist Emile-A239, and marksman Jun-A266
The game opens with the planet Reach in ruins, then flashes back to before the devastating invasion by the Covenant
Noble Team, dispatched to investigate why a communications relay has gone offline, discovers Covenant forces on Reach
Soon after, the team defends “Sword Base”, an Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) installation, from a Covenant vessel
The team meets Catherine Halsey, a scientist and the mastermind behind the Spartan program and their MJOLNIR powered armor
Halsey informs Noble Team that the Covenant forces at the relay were searching for important information
Jun and Six are dispatched on a covert mission to assess the Covenant’s strength and discover an invasion force gathering on the planet
The following morning, Noble Team assists UNSC forces in assaulting a Covenant ground base
When a massive Covenant super-carrier joins the fight, Jorge and Six take part in a plan to destroy the super-carrier using a makeshift bomb
The Spartans use starfighters to infiltrate a smaller Covenant corvette, prepare the bomb and set the corvette on a docking course with the carrier, but the bomb’s timer is damaged
Left with no choice, Jorge stays behind and sacrifices himself to destroy the super-carrier
Moments later, huge numbers of Covenant ships arrive at Reach and begin a full-scale invasion
Six returns to the surface and travels to the city of New Alexandria
The Spartan aids the local military in fighting the Covenant and evacuating the city, reuniting with Noble Team along the way
They retreat to an underground bunker when the Covenant begin to bombard the city with plasma, but Kat is killed by a Covenant sniper before they reach it
Recalled to Sword Base, Noble Team is guided underground to an ancient artifact that Halsey believes is key to winning the war against the Covenant
Six, Carter and Emile are entrusted with transporting the artificial intelligence Cortana, and the information she carries concerning the artifact, to the UNSC ship Pillar of Autumn
Jun leaves the team to escort Halsey to another base
En route to the Autumn’s dry dock, Carter is critically wounded
He rams his ship into a Covenant mobile assault platform, allowing Six and Emile to safely reach the shipyard
Emile uses a mass driver emplacement to defend the Autumn while Six fights through Covenant ground forces to get Cortana to the Autumn’s captain, Jacob Keyes
When Emile is slain by Elites, Six remains behind to control the gun, ensuring the Autumn’s escape
The Autumn flees from Reach and discovers a Halo ringworld, leading directly to the events of Halo: Combat Evolved
The post-credits scene puts the player in control of Six’s last stand against overwhelming Covenant forces
After sustaining heavy damage, Six drops his or her shattered helmet and is overwhelmed and killed
Decades later, Six’s helmet remains on the grassy plains of a now-restored Reach
A narration by Halsey eulogizes Noble Team, who ultimately enabled humanity’s victory over the Covenant
Halo: Reach was announced on June 1, 2009, accompanied by a trailer at the Microsoft Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) press conference
[21] A press release announced that an invitation to the open multiplayer beta of the game would appear in 2010
[22] Reach is Bungie’s last game development for the Halo series
Responsibility for developing future Halo games fell to Microsoft subsidiary 343 Industries
A trailer released March 3, 2010, showcased the game’s multiplayer
[24] Bungie revealed parts of the game’s campaign and Firefight at E3 2010
The game reached the “zero bug release” milestone on June 23, signifying a shift from content creation to troubleshooting; buggy artificial intelligence or other elements would be removed rather than fixed at this point because of time constraints
[25] Bungie released the complete list of achievements for the game on July 30, including their titles, symbols, and requirements,[26] and completed Reach between the end of July and beginning of August 2010
After Halo 3, development studio Bungie created an internal team to work on Peter Jackson’s planned Halo game, Halo Chronicles
Chronicles was eventually canceled and the team began working on a standalone expansion project—Halo 3: ODST—while another team, led by creative director Marcus Lehto and design lead Christian Allen,[28] worked on Reach
[29] The team considered many different concepts and approaches to the game; among the rejected ideas was a sequel to Halo 3
[30] The team eventually settled on a prequel to the first Halo game in brainstorming sessions
It would take place on the planet Reach, during a pivotal time in the war
“Reach, as a fictional planet, was just a great candidate [to] play around with
It’s such a rich world, with such a great fiction surrounding it,” said Lehto
“We were like: ‘Okay, that’s it
We’ve just got a lot of things we can do there so we can build an immense story with it
‘”[31] No longer burdened with continuing the story threads of the Halo trilogy, Bungie used Reach to introduce new characters and settings
[27] As Reach ends with the destruction of the titular planet, Bungie wanted to be sure players still felt a sense of accomplishment and success
“It is a challenge overall to ensure the player feels they’re doing the right thing all the way to the end,” said Lehto
Lehto recalled that making a character-driven story was a great challenge—players would come to know more about them as they progressed through the campaign, but the Spartan characters also had to behave intelligently
[34] “The Halo games consistently featured protagonists that were silent during gameplay sequences
Community manager Brian Jarrard pushed for allowing players to choose a female Noble Six and have the cinematics and dialogue change accordingly
[35] The post-credit game sequence was the subject of intense discussion; some at Bungie wanted to remove it
Executive producer Joe Tung noted, “the ‘survive’ component
felt great to us
We definitely talked about different versions of how that was happening and different versions of ending [the game] cinematically, but I think the way that it ultimately ended up is just a really well-paced, significant and emotionally impactful ending
The developers originally intended to port existing Halo 3 assets to Reach and update them
[37] For Halo 3, Bungie had been forced to shrink parts of the game to fit the game engine’s constraints,[35] but wanted to make Reach look better than its predecessors
[38] “The more we started looking into this, the more we found that realistically we could rebuild each asset from scratch with a huge increase in quality without significantly investing more time,” said Bungie 3D artist Scott Shepherd
[37] Texture resolution and polygon counts for models increased; the Reach assault rifle is constructed of more polygons than an entire Marine character from Halo 3
[37] The prequel concept also gave the art team an opportunity to redesign key enemies, weapons, and elements of the series
Artists found inspiration in the original concept art for Halo: Combat Evolved; the shape for the redesigned Covenant Grunts came from a sketch that concept artist Shi Kai Wang created ten years earlier
The developers redesigned the game engine, the software that handles rendering and much of gameplay
[40] Bungie hired an expert in motion capture to develop more realistic character animations
[34] Building a motion capture studio in-house saved Bungie time as motion capture data could be applied to the game models the same day it was shot
[41] The developers sought to increase replay value by focusing on improving artificial intelligence
[38] Rather than scripting enemy encounters, they focused on a more open world or sandbox approach to battles
Composing team Martin O’Donnell and Michael Salvatori scored Reach
O’Donnell wrote “somber, more visceral” music since the plot is character-driven and focuses on a planet that is already known—in the Halo fictional universe—to have fallen
[42] The first music he wrote for Reach was played for the game’s world premiere, and he used it as a starting piece to develop further themes
[43] O’Donnell began work on Reach while ODST, for which he also wrote the music, was still in production, but did not begin composing until August 2009
Past Halo collaborators Salvatori, C
Paul Johnson, and Stan LePard assisted O’Donnell
With Reach, he did not give them strictly divided responsibilities
“I decided this time to come up with some themes, tempos, keys, and other basic starting points for musical ideas,” explained O’Donnell
“I shared these with all the other composers and just asked them to take off if they felt inspired by any of that material
” The works-in-progress they came up with were either retouched by O’Donnell or sent back to be finished by their composer
In previous Halo games, sections of music overlap and change depending on player action
Reach’s system of interactive audio was much more complex, featuring the ability to combine up to seven layers of instrumentation compared to Combat Evolved’s two
[45] Developers also expanded the sound effect system
Every interacting object in Reach produces two sounds for respective objects; for example, a Warthog vehicle that hits an armored Covenant soldier produces a crunching metal noise based on the two colliding elements
[46] The interaction between objects and terrain was demonstrated in an in-game environment that O’Donnell called “the stripey room” after the bands of alternating colors on the objects and environment
Reach’s multiplayer beta was open to owners of Halo 3: ODST
More than three million copies of ODST were sold by November 2009
[47] Bungie estimated between two and three million players for the upcoming Reach beta, compared to the 800,000 that participated in Halo 3’s trial
[48][49] Development schedules forced Bungie to release a six-week-old beta, fraught with bugs and issues already addressed in newer builds
Though concerned that these issues might tarnish the game’s image, Jarrard noted that they had little choice but to ship it as it was and communicate with players concerning the fixes
More than 2
7 million players participated in the beta, which lasted from May 3 to 20
[51] The game was rolled out from an internal group of Bungie and Microsoft employees, with the total number of players in the thousands
When the beta went public, more than a million played the first day, causing back-end servers to struggle to handle the traffic
While the engineering team had overestimated server load, bugs in server clusters caused game uploads to become backed up, slowing matchmaking until the underlying issues could be fixed
Jarrard noted that the 16 million total hours of play time and large-scale rollout of the beta was vital to seeing how Reach would perform
Bungie used the beta to fix mistakes, glitches, and balance issues within gameplay elements
[53] “We needed our fans to provide feedback,” said Lehto, adding that having a large audience to “hammer” on the game allowed them to gather useful feedback to mold the finished product
[54] The game automatically collected statistics such as upload and matchmaking speeds, as well as game preferences; sorting out what Jarrard called “the more subjective anecdotal feedback” from emails, notes, and forums proved more difficult
The Reach beta generated over 360,000 forum posts on Bungie’s community forums
Bungie created official threads for groups of issues to manage the high volume of feedback; “We tried to give people a little bit more of a direct avenue to give that feedback and to make our lives easier
It was definitely a lot to assess and digest,” said Jarrard
[50] Certain feedback from the players did not correlate with the statistical data obtained from the matches during the beta
Chris Carney, lead designer for the multiplayer mode, recalled vocal dissatisfaction with the pistol early in the beta; by the end of the beta, the weapon was responsible for most of the kills coming from newly included weapons in the game
Bungie deployed special test matches to eliminate lurking variables, balance gameplay, and make other informed changes
Reach was released in three editions on September 14, 2010
[56] The standard edition consisted of the game and its manual
The limited edition featured an artifact bag with story information, different packaging, and an exclusive set of in-game Elite armor
The “legendary edition” contained all the materials from the limited edition, a different packaging, two hours of developer commentary on the game’s cutscenes, an in-game Spartan armor effect, and a 10-pound (4
5 kg) statue created by McFarlane Toys
[57] North American players who purchased a first run copy of the game (in-store near launch day or pre-ordered) received an in-game Spartan “recon” helmet customization; players in other regions could earn it only by pre-ordering
[58] Reach also came bundled with a limited edition Xbox 360 Slim that sports Halo-themed sounds and finish and two controllers
Bungie released a demo on May 24, 2010, featuring a single player level from the game’s story mode, a multiplayer competitive map, and a cooperative firefight mission
[60] Microsoft later listed Reach as an Xbox Live Marketplace download on August 12, 2010, at a price of 99999 Microsoft Points (~US$1250)
[61] A spokesperson confirmed the download was for media review purposes, and that there were no plans to distribute the game to the public through Games on Demand
[61] Four days later, hackers managed to access, download, and distribute the game online;[62][63] Microsoft stated they were actively investigating the matter
[64] Halo 2, Halo 3, and ODST were similarly leaked ahead of their planned release
According to Jarrard, the team decided to have much more “grandiose” marketing for Reach than that of ODST
[48] Microsoft gave Reach its largest game marketing budget at the time, surpassing the scale and $6
5 million cost of Halo 3’s award-winning marketing
Marketers focused their efforts on connecting with consumers via universal themes, rather than outdoing Halo 3’s push
[66] Interpublic Group of Companies’ AgencyTwoFifteen handled strategy and video development for the marketing push, while AKQA developed interactive components
The agencies were involved with Halo 3’s marketing
The advertisers’ brief was simple: “Remember Reach
Focus on the heroes, not the victims
Expand our audience beyond Halo fanboys
The advertising campaign commenced in April 2010 with the live-action short “Birth of a Spartan”
[67] A series of online videos highlighting a day in the life of average Reach citizens before the Covenant invade, began on August 23, followed by TV spots on August 29
[68] The series concluded in late August with another short, “Deliver Hope”
[69] As part of the promotions, Microsoft created an interactive light sculpture; users logged onto a website where they could direct a KUKA industrial robot to plot pinpricks of light; over 54,000 points created a monument to Noble Team that faded unless more points were plotted
[70] Reach’s marketing won several industry distinctions, among them thirteen medals from the MI6 Game Marketing Conference Awards
Several lines of tie-in merchandise were launched
McFarlane, who had produced toys for Halo 3, created a line of five-inch action figures,[72] while Square Enix’s Play Arts toy label created additional figures
Reach was released Tuesday, September 14 in 25 countries
Tens of thousands of stores signed up for midnight launch events; sponsored events took place in London, Oslo, Stockholm, and New York
Reach made $200 million in first-day sales, a record for the franchise
Its strong sales suggested to analysts that core titles in the holiday season could reverse sluggish video game sales in 2010
[75] In its first sixteen days the game sold $350 million worth of merchandise
[76] Reach premiered at the top of Xbox 360 and multi-platform charts in most territories
[77] Figures from the NPD Group estimated that Reach sold 3
3 million units in North America, making it the third game for its console generation (Xbox 360, PS3, Wii) to sell more than three million units during the first month of its release (alongside Halo 3 and Modern Warfare 2)
[78] Halo: Reach became the third bestselling game of 2010 in North America, behind Call of Duty: Black Ops and Madden NFL 11
[79] It sold 4
7 million units by September 2011
In the United Kingdom, Reach’s opening week was the fifth-best launch in the territory, beating Halo 3’s debut by 20,000 units and ODST’s by 200,000 units
[81] In its second week on the UK charts Reach was the second bestselling title, displaced by the racing game F1 2010
[82] Reach continued to hold the top place in North America
[83][84] In Japan, the game debuted at first place with 44,413 units, but fared poorly in the long-term (as have other Halo games)
This showing was above ODST’s sales of 29,734 in the comparable timeframe, but below Halo 3’s 61,143
[85] Reach dropped out of the top 20 best selling titles entirely its second week
Reach supports additional downloadable content (DLC)
Bungie released the game’s first DLC, dubbed the “Noble Map Pack”, on November 30, 2010;[88] this map pack contains three maps, unique in that they are not based on Reach campaign levels
[89] Microsoft partnered with Certain Affinity, which had worked on Halo 2 maps,[90] to produce the second, “Defiant Map Pack”,[91] made available for download on March 15, 2011
A “title update” was released by 343 Industries for Reach that modified game mechanics such as bullet spread and melee damage
The update also contained playlists for Halo: Combat Evolved Anniversary
[93] Purchasers of anniversary edition received a voucher to download the game’s seven multiplayer maps directly into Reach, the map pack was also made available to purchase via the Xbox Live Marketplace
Halo: Reach received critical acclaim upon its release
On review-aggregating web sites GameRankings and Metacritic, it holds averages of 91
79% and 91/100, respectively
[96][97] Critics such as 1UP
com’s Thierry Nguyen, the staff of Edge, GamePro’s Matt Cabral, and others considered Reach the best Halo title yet
[101][102][104][114] Reviewers noted there were few major changes to the Halo formula;[106] IGN’s Erik Brudvig wrote that Reach was not “another rehash”, though franchise veterans would feel immediately at home with the game
Nguyen, Tom Hoggins of The Daily Telegraph, and others wrote that Reach took the best elements from previous games and combined them in Bungie’s final entry
Hoggins noted that this approach made Reach “a blistering, breathless crescendo to a decade’s worth of work”, but also that it was unlikely to convert non-Halo fans
[101][113][114] The Daily Mirror’s Kevin Lynch praised Bungie for introducing new gameplay mechanics like jetpacks without ruining the title’s learning curve or game balance
Brudvig praised the campaign for avoiding the “repetitive landscapes and circuitous, difficult to follow plots” of past Halo titles
[3] GameSpot’s Chris Watters and others felt the artificial intelligence of friendly non-player characters was less advanced than that of enemies, especially while driving
[106] Steve Boxer wrote for The Guardian that Reach’s story made previous entries feel “amateurish”;[112] Nguyen felt that whereas previous Halo titles had become mired in inconsistencies and Star Trek-like technobabble, Reach told a broader and more accessible story
Despite this, he contended, the game suffered from archetypal characters with which players spent little time: “I almost forgot that Noble Four (Emile) even existed for a big chunk of the campaign, as I rarely saw him
“[101] Wired’s Gus Mastrapa unfavorably compared Noble Team to the marines of Aliens, writing that most of the characters were unmemorable and one-dimensional
[5] Nguyen also faulted the game for occasional lapses in exposition, but summed these up as “minor quibbles” compared to the improvements
[101] In contrast, GamesRadar’s Charlie Baratt opined that Reach’s campaign was better than ODST’s, but lacked the “franchise-changing potential” it promised
[105] Lynch judged that while Bungie still had not learned to create a perfect story, “[Reach] does expertly set up bombastic scene after scene”
Ben Kuchera of Ars Technica enjoyed the multiplayer component of Reach for its scope—”no matter how you play, you will find something to like
“[115] Reviewers lauded the many customization options available to players:[105] Watters and Kuchera praised the concept of psych profiles to hone more agreeable teammate selections, but questioned its effectiveness;[106][115] G4 considered Reach’s Forge World more expansive and impressive than Halo 3’s Forge offerings;[110] and Lynch wrote that the sheer quantity of multiplayer options would give the game a long life cycle for players
Critics considered the audio-visual components a marked advance over Halo 3 and ODST’s
The New Zealand Herald’s Troy Rawhiti-Forbes wrote that with the improved graphics and animation, “[Reach] looks just like a big-budget Hollywood project
“[116] Official Xbox Magazine acknowledged better graphics in other games, but praised Reach for “eye-catching beauty and breathless scope”, noting that the inclusion of wildlife and civilians heightened the impression of a planet under siege
[109] Martin Robinson of IGN UK appreciated O’Donnell’s moody score and the redone sound effects, writing that the new weapons “feel like they’re about to tear your hands off”

Working from home is awesome!

Kia Michelle Stevens[1] (born September 4, 1977) is an American professional wrestler best known for her time with Total Nonstop Action Wrestling under the ring name Awesome Kong
She is also known by the ring name Amazing Kong and appeared in WWE as Kharma
She is a five-time Women’s Champion, having won the TNA Knockouts Championship two times and the WWWA World Championship, NWA World Women’s Championship and AWA Superstars of Wrestling World Women’s Championship once
Her success is not limited to singles wrestling, as she frequently teamed with Aja Kong to form the tag team W Kong who held tag team championships in four different promotions, along with winning the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Championship with Hamada
She was also ranked first in the inaugural list of Pro Wrestling Illustrated’s Top 50 Females and is the third woman to enter the WWE Royal Rumble match
She began her professional wrestling career in 2002 after appearing on a reality television show
She primarily wrestled in Japan for the first five years of her career, holding numerous championships there
In 2006 she began wrestling in her native United States again, appearing on the independent circuit before appearing on national television with TNA Wrestling where she was a driving force in the foundation of their Knockouts division
Joanie Laurer, known during her WWF career as Chyna, and Trish Stratus served as Stevens’ primary inspirations to become a professional wrestler
[8] In 2002, Stevens appeared on the Discovery Health Body Challenge as a contestant trying to lose weight in hopes of becoming a professional wrestler
[9] Afterward, Stevens trained at the School of Hard Knocks out of San Bernardino, California
[7][10] Soon, she was able to have her first professional match in the Empire Wrestling Federation
After putting on an impressive showing at a tryout, Stevens was invited to further her training in the dojo of joshi puroresu (female Japanese wrestling) promotion All Japan Women’s Pro-Wrestling (AJW)
[7][10] While there she underwent a rigorous training schedule, became fluent in Japanese, and engaged in training for mixed martial arts but chose to pursue professional wrestling
[10] She was given the ring name Amazing Kong by Masatsugu Matsunaga, who needed a replacement for Japanese female wrestler Aja Kong in several matches
[11] Stevens, as Kong, worked for multiple women’s promotions in Japan, and she defeated Ayako Hamada for the WWWA World Heavyweight Championship in late 2004
[7] Later, Stevens cited Hamada as one of her favorite opponents
In 2004 Kong debuted for the joshi promotion Gaea Japan in a match against Aja Kong
In the battle of American Kong versus Japanese Kong on April 30 at Limit Break
At the promotion’s ninth anniversary event Aja Kong won the match but gained enough respect for Amazing Kong that the two attacked both competitors in the main event, revealing themselves as a new tag team named W Kong
[12] The duo soon made their presence felt when they challenged Chigusa Nagayo and Lioness Asuka for the AAAW Tag Team Championship on May 5 and won
[13] The team defended the championship successfully all Summer, eventually losing to Manami Toyota and Carlos Amano on September 20
[14] Going into 2005, Kong main evented the final Gaea show before the promotion closed down
In the final match of Fifth Anniversary, Kong teamed with Ayako Hamada and Mayumi Ozaki in a winning effort against Akino, Dynamite Kansai and Gami with Ayako picking up the victory
After the closure of Gaea, W Kong went on to wrestle for a number of Japanese promotions including Hustle, where they were given the comedic gimmicks of Margaret and Erika which involved, among other things, wrestling in a yellow tutu
[10] They won the predominantly male Hustle Super Tag Team Championship from June until October 2006
[7][16] They were also the final team to hold WWWA World Tag Team Championship before AJW shut down
[10] In early 2007, Kong also won the AWA Superstars of Wrestling World Women’s Championship in Tokyo, Japan and held it from January to May
[7] She lost it to Nanae Takahashi in a three way match, which also included Wesna
Her success in Japan attracted the attention of United States promotion Shimmer Women Athletes, who began regularly booking her for their DVD tapings in Kong’s homeland from May 2006
Her debut came on Volume 5 with a win against Nikki Roxx
[18] She defeated Roxx again on Volume 14: Hot Summer Nights in a rematch
[19] The rematch was Kong’s fifth successive win which led her to challenge for the Shimmer Championship in October 2007 against inaugural champion Sara Del Rey, for the Volume 15 taping
Del Rey retained to give Kong her first Shimmer loss, albeit via count out
Kong then began another winning streak, losing only to Ariel by disqualification after using a chair on Volume 17 which set back her chances of being given another championship match
She was placed in a Four-Way Contendership match on Volume 21; during the match Mercedes Martinez used her Fisherman Buster finisher on Cheerleader Melissa but before she could be pinned, Kong dragged Martinez to the floor and the two battled it out while Ariel stole the win to receive a championship match
[21] This incident led to a grudge match between Martinez and Kong on Volume 23, which Kong won
[22] On the following show, instead of a Shimmer Championship match, Kong was put in a contendership match for the Shimmer Tag Team Championship, forming a brief alliance of convenience with Del Rey, who herself was having issues with their opponents MelissChif (Cheerleader Melissa and Shimmer Champion MsChif)
After winning the match,[23] they faced the reigning champions Ashley Lane and Nevaeh in the following match, and once again Kong was disqualified after using chairs on her opponents
An assault continued until Martinez and Serena Deeb, who was feuding with Del Rey, appeared to help out the Tag Team Champions
This occurrence led to another tag team match with Kong and Del Rey picking up a victory over Martinez and Deeb
Wanting to focus on her singles career again, Kong wrestled LuFisto on Volume 27 in a match to take on the Shimmer Champion
It ended in a double count-out, with the two brawling outside the ring through the building and even during the next match in the show
This meant the championship match on Volume 28, in November 2009, would be a three-way elimination match including the champion MsChif
[25] Kong eliminated LuFisto early on with an Amazing Bomb, essentially leading to a rematch of Kong and MsChif’s critically respected Volume 9 match
[26][27] In this match, however, MsChif took a return win after kicking out of the Amazing Bomb and delivering all of her signature finishing moves on Kong to become the first woman to pin Kong in Shimmer
[25] She appeared for one more appearance in September 2010 for the Volume 35 event, answering an open challenge by Kellie Skater with an emphatic victory
Owing to Shimmer being a sister promotion of Ring of Honor (ROH), Kong was noticed by ROH and scouted to appear on both products
On 15 September 2007 she made her debut for ROH at their Man Up pay-per-view (PPV)
Teaming with Daizee Haze in a tag team match, they defeated Sara Del Rey and Lacey
Kong returned to ROH on May 8, 2010 to take part in the promotion’s annual Supercard of Honor V
Once more she wrestled Del Rey, this time in a singles match which she lost after Del Rey used a weighted elbow pad thrown to her by Kings of Wrestling stablemate Chris Hero, sparking a rivalry between the two
[30] Kong returned to settle the score with Del Rey two months later at Hate: Chapter II on July 23
The Kings of Wrestling were in the midst of a rivalry with The Briscoe Brothers (Jay and Mark), and so Kong teamed with them in a six-person tag team match, where they defeated Del Rey, Hero and their stablemate Claudio Castagnoli, though Kong did not secure the pin
Consequently, they had a singles rematch the following night, with Kong finally defeating Del Rey one-on-one
[31][32] At the end of the year, ROH held their live PPV Final Battle 2010, which saw Del Rey challenge Daizee Haze to bring more competition to ROH
Haze responded by bringing Kong back for the December 18 match against Del Rey and her partner Serena Deeb
In the match Del Rey pinned Haze, while Deeb successfully neutralized Kong with a spear
After growing success in Shimmer, Kong began appearing on the American independent circuit bringing with her the AWA World Women’s Championship from Japan
She put it on the line in a champion versus champion match against MsChif’s NWA World Women’s Championship on May 5, 2007 becoming a joint champion with her win
[7][34] A rematch between the two in September, exclusively for the NWA belt after Kong lost the AWA title in May, headlined the NWA No Limits 3rd Anniversary Show which saw Kong retain the title
[35] Kong defended the belt in a number of promotions throughout the year but 11 months later, in April 2008, MsChif won back the title via countout under a special stipulation to retain Kong’s stature
[36] The following year, Kong once again challenged for the NWA World Championship at NWA Charlotte’s Valentine’s Day themed inaugural show, Thorns & Roses, in the penultimate match of the evening
With Daffney in her corner, MsChif and saved herself from the Awesome Bomb by using her green mist, disqualifying herself to retain the belt in the process
In June 2007, Kong toured Great Britain under the ChickFight promotion, wrestling guest matches under that banner for other promotions
The tour started on June 15 in Wales for Celtic Wrestling, where she picked up a victory over ChickFight stalwart Cheerleader Melissa
[38] The following day Kong debuted for Real Quality Wrestling (RQW) and took part in a Four-Way RQW Women’s Championship match, that saw Wesna win the belt from reigning champion Eden Black, with Jetta also coming up winless
[39] The following day Kong competed in Chickfight IX, the ninth and final all-women knockout tournament under the ChickFight banner
She received a bye via forfeit, owing to a severe injury Cheerleader Melissa had given her opponent Sweet Saraya at RQW the night before, which allowed her to be fresh against Blue Nikita
After defeating Nikita in the semi-final, she faced dethroned RQW Champion Eden Black and won the trophy
After achieving notoriety on national television, Kong received more bookings including for the all-female company Women Superstars Uncensored in March 2008
She appeared at their First Anniversary Show answering an open challenge made by Rick Cataldo and Roxxie Cotton, defeating them both in a handicap match within a minute
Later in the same event she teamed with Amy Lee and defeated Angel Orsini and Shimmer rival Mercedes Martinez
Despite picking up the victory, Kong felt that Lee stole the glory of a win from her and went to attack Lee; this led to an Amy Lee’s Rules match in the main event of Dawn of a New Day which Kong won after Lee passed out, refusing to submit
The two had a rematch at Army of One which Kong lost by disqualification after hitting a referee leading to a deciding rubber match contested under Last Man Standing rules
At the Second Anniversary Show, Kong narrowly beat Amy Lee after charging at Lee with a chair only for Lee to pass out to the ground and Kong to hit the ropes and knock the chair back into herself
Judging Lee to have been down one count before Kong, Kong won the match but bowed to Lee afterwards out of respect
After winning this match, Kong was given a match against Martinez for the WSU Championship in December 2009 at a WSU and National Wrestling Superstars co-hosted event
[41] Kong received another chance at the title at Evolve 5: Danielson v Sawa for the Evolve promotion but still could not bring an end to Martinez’s two-year reign
Stevens debuted on the October 11, 2007 episode of Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA)’s flagship show Impact! under the tweaked name Awesome Kong as part of TNA’s attempt to bolster their Knockout division
After defeating Gail Kim,[7] Kong participated appeared at the Bound for Glory PPV
There she took part in a 10-Knockout Gauntlet match to crown the first TNA Women’s Knockout Champion but she was eliminated by the combined effort of Angelina Love, ODB and eventual winner Gail Kim
[42] Two months later at Turning Point, she lost a Women’s Knockout Championship match to Kim via disqualification after shoving the referee and Awesome Bombing him
[43] This incident led to a No Disqualification match for the Women’s Knockout Championship at Final Resolution in January 2008, which Kong also lost
[7] On the next episode of Impact!, airing 10 January, Kong debuted an anonymous manager wearing a niqāb, later named Raisha Saeed; with her help Kong finally won the Women’s Knockout Championship
[7] At Lockdown, Kong and Saeed teamed up for the first time, losing a Tag Team Cage match to Kim and ODB
On the 8 May episode of Impact! Kong began a regular $25,000 challenge to females in the audience who wanted to challenge her for the Women’s Knockout Championship
The audience members, played by planted wrestlers, failed to defeat her but one challenger, Taylor Wilde, kept returning and on 10 July she won both the $25,000 and Women’s Knockout Championship on her third attempt
[7][45] Kong then failed to regain the championship from Wilde during a rematch at Victory Road
[46] On October 23, during a live episode of Impact! Kong defeated Wilde to become a two-time Knockout Champion
[7] Two weeks later Wilde’s tag team partner Rhaka Khan turned on her and aligned herself with Kong and Saeed
[47] The alliance of Kong, Saeed and Khan became known as The Kongtourage, with a fourth wrestler named Sojourner Bolt joining later
[48] Wilde then found a new partner in Roxxi, who helped her defeat Kong and Saeed in a tag team match at Turning Point
[49] Going into 2009, Bolt became the contender for Kong’s championship and left the Kongtourage with Khan
[50][51] Kong retained her title against Bolt at Destination X in April
On the March 26 episode of Impact!, Kong and Saeed were defeated by villainous tag team The Beautiful People (Angelina Love and Velvet Sky), and after the match The Beautiful People tried to cut Kong’s hair as part of their makeover gimmick
[53] They continued to target Kong’s hair and eventually accomplished the task on the April 16 episode of Impact! which transitioned Kong into a fan favorite by attempting to retaliate
[7] The tension built to a Three-Way Cage match at Lockdown for the Women’s Knockout Championship with Kong defending against Angelina Love and continual rival Wilde
In the match, Kong lost the championship after Velvet Sky, on the outside, tied Kong’s hair to the cage preventing her from breaking up Love’s pin on Wilde
[54] After losing the title, Kong defeated Love’s allies Sky, Madison Rayne and Cute Kip in separate Stretcher matches ahead of their rematch
[7] Love, however, retained the title against Kong at Sacrifice
In August 2009 Kong and Saeed entered the tournament to crown the inaugural TNA Knockouts Tag Team Champions
In the first round of the tournament, the team was able to defeat The Main Event Mafia (Traci Brooks and Sharmell) after Saeed blind tagged Kong and pinned Brooks, much to Kong’s dismay
[55] Three weeks later they were eliminated from the tournament by their long term rival Taylor Wilde and her partner Sarita when Wilde pinned Saeed
[56] Subsequently, Kong began rivalries with Tara and Knockout Champion ODB
At Bound for Glory, Kong had her last match for the Knockout Championship against Tara and ODB, but Saeed inadvertently cost Kong the match while interfering
[57] On the following episode of Impact! Kong faced Saeed in a grudge match and powerbombed her through the entrance stage, signalling the end of both their partnership and the Saeed character
[58] After interfering in two of Tara’s matches, Kong and Tara wrestled at Turning Point in a Cage match, which Tara won
On the December 17 episode of Impact! Kong formed a tag team with Hamada as they won a three-way non-title match against The Beautiful People (Madison Rayne and Velvet Sky) and the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Champions Taylor Wilde and Sarita, when Kong pinned Rayne
[60] On the first Impact! episode of 2010, Kong and Hamada defeated Sarita and Wilde to win the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Championship
In a non-storyline incident Bubba the Love Sponge claimed on his January 19 radio show that Stevens had attacked him while backstage for the tapings of Impact! the previous day due to his negative comments concerning the Haiti earthquake relief project
Kong, who had been a driving force in the wrestling community in raising funds for Haiti, was reportedly sent home from the tapings following the altercation
[62] It was later reported that the same day as Bubba’s radio show, Stevens asked for her release from TNA, but it was not granted
[63] After she refused to take part in TNA’s January 2010 tour of the United Kingdom, the company suspended her
[64] The following month, Stevens filed a lawsuit against Bubba for an alleged threatening phone call
[65] She was reportedly released from TNA on March 1
[66] On the March 8 episode of Impact! it was announced that Kong and Hamada were stripped of the Knockouts Tag Team title after allegedly failing to defend them in 30 days,[67] even though their previous defense had taken place just 21 days prior, against Madison Rayne and Velvet Sky
[68] On March 22, TNA confirmed Stevens’ release, while also claiming that she had requested her release due to personal reasons, but she later said it was due to monetary issues and recent changes to TNA management
In March 2013, Stevens turned down an offer to take part in a special all Knockouts pay-per-view held by TNA
[71] During an interview in late November 2012, Stevens revealed that she would never again work for TNA Wrestling
On December 29, 2010, it was reported that Stevens had signed a contract with WWE
[73][74] From April 11, 2011 onwards, vignettes aired during WWE television with Stevens, whose face was concealed by shadows and her signature braids, dismembering female dolls while cackling maniacally
[75] During the April 25 episode of Raw, Stevens’ face was shown for the first time in the vignettes, and her new ring name was revealed as Kharma
[4] Kharma made her debut on May 1 at Extreme Rules, attacking Michelle McCool after a match,[76] and she continued to attack different WWE Divas on both Raw and SmackDown in the following weeks
[77][78] On the May 23 episode of Raw, Kharma interrupted a tag team match but rather than attack everyone, she uncharacteristically broke down crying
[79] The following week, Kharma spoke for the first time to reveal she was pregnant and thus forced to take a leave of absence from WWE
[80] During her absence, she was included as a downloadable playable character in the WWE ’12 video game
Kharma made a surprise return in the 2012 Royal Rumble match as the twenty-first entrant
She intimidated Michael Cole into eliminating himself before eliminating Hunico only to be thrown out by Dolph Ziggler
With her entrance, she became the third female, after Chyna and Beth Phoenix, to participate in a Royal Rumble match
This also marked her first and only official WWE match
[82] In July 2012, Stevens confirmed via Twitter that she had parted ways with WWE, after being released from her contract
[83] By August 19, she had been added to the list of the playable characters on the main roster in the WWE ’13 video game
[84] In September 2013, Stevens revealed that she was granted her release from WWE because she was not ready to return in the time they allotted for her
She also confirmed her interest in returning to the company, stating she was ready
In early November, it was reported that Stevens (again under the Amazing Kong gimmick) would be appearing at a Shine event on November 16, 2012 as the mystery partner of Jazz in a tag team match against Mercedes Martinez and Rain
At the event, Kong and Jazz defeated Martinez and Rain after Kong pinned Rain
[86] On January 18, 2013, Kong defeated D’Arcy Dixon, Nikki St
John and Thunderkitty in a four-way match to win the vacant Resistance Pro Wrestling Women’s Championship
[87] On March 8, Kong returned to Chikara, losing to Eddie Kingston in an intergender main event
[88][89] Stevens has also wrestled for PWS Bombshells (as Amazing Kong) in early to mid-2013, defeating Amy Lee in consecutive matches
On April 6, 2013, Kong returned to Shimmer at the Volume 53 internet pay-per-view, defeating Mia Yim in the opening match
[91] The Amazing Kong returned to Shine event on July 12, 2013 in a losing effort to Ivelisse in a four way to qualify for Shine Championship tournament among the participants were Angelina Love and Kimberly
Then at Shine 12 on August 23, 2013 she defeated Mercedes Martinez in a singles match
On September 27, 2013 Kong and Jessicka Havok were in a losing effort against Allysin Kay and Ivelisse
On October 25, 2013 she defeated Madison Eagles in a singles match and later in the night she was announced the next challenger for the Shine Championship
On December 13, 2013 she was defeated by Rain for the Shine Championship by count-out
On January 24, 2014 she defeated Taylor Made and on Shine 18 Kong defeated Nikki Storm and Shine 19 she defeated Athena
On August 22, 2014 Kong was part of a #1 contender four corner survival match to challenge Ivelisse for the Shine Championship the other participants in the match were Leah Von Dutch, Su Yung, and Nevaeh
Nevaeh would emerge victorious in the #1 contender match but was unsuccessful on capturing the Shine Championship
On September 21, 2014 Stevens was part of Smash CANUSA Classic where she was captain of Team USA, Stevens would lose in her tournament match against LuFisto who was team captain of team Canada which lead Team Canada victorious
On August 26, 2015, Kong returned to Japan to work the first ever event of Nanae Takahashi’s new Seadlinnng promotion, which saw her and Meiko Satomura lose to Takahashi and Ayako Hamada in a main event tag team match
At the end of the show, Kong reformed the W Kong tag team with Aja Kong
[92] Stevens was supposed to return to take part in Seadlinnng’s November 25 event, but on November 22 Takahashi announced that she had pulled out of the match due to “poor health” and claimed she had decided to retire from professional wrestling
[93] Stevens later stated that she had wrestled her final match in Japan and retired the Amazing Kong name, but was for the time being still working as Awesome Kong
On January 7, 2015, during Impact Wrestling’s debut on Destination America, Awesome Kong returned after a battle royal, had an altercation in the ring with Havok and attacked referee Brian Stiffler
[95] Over the following weeks, tension would build between Kong and Havok, with their feud culminating in a steel cage match on the Lockdown edition of Impact Wrestling on February 6, which Kong won
[96] On the March 6 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong failed to capture the TNA Knockouts Championship in her match against Taryn Terrell after she got herself disqualified
[97] She received a no disqualification rematch against Terrell on the TKO: Night of Knockouts edition of Impact Wrestling on April 24, which she lost after The Dollhouse (Marti Bell and Jade) attacked Kong
[98] On the May 1 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong turned face and allied herself with Gail Kim to feud with The Dollhouse
The following week, Kong and Kim were defeated by The Dollhouse in a 3–on–2 handicap match
[99] On the June 17 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong teamed up with Brooke to defeat The Dollhouse in a “Double or Nothing” tag team match, meaning that Kong and Brooke will face Taryn Terrell for the TNA Knockouts Championship in a three-way match
[100] At Slammiversary XIII, Kong once again teamed with Brooke to defeat The Dollhouse in a 3-on-2 handicap match
[101] Kong and Brooke received their three-way championship match on the July 1 episode of Impact Wrestling, in which Terrell retained the title
In mid–August, Kong, representing TNA, started a brief feud with Lei’D Tapa, who represented Jeff Jarrett’s “Global Force Wrestling”
The two faced off on August 12 in a match, that ended in a double count-out
[103] On the September 16 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong competed in a fatal–four way match against Brooke, Gail Kim and Tapa for the TNA Women’s Knockout Championship, which Kim would win
[104] At Bound for Glory, Kong received a match against Kim for but was unsuccessful in regaining the championship
During October and November (taped in July), she participated in the TNA World Title Series, where she ended first of her block, tied with Gail Kim, advancing to the finals where she lost to Jessie Godderz round of 16 tournamement and being eliminated
On January 5, 2016, during Impact Wrestling’s debut on Pop, Kong allied with the The Dollhouse (Jade, Marti Bell and Rebel) and became their new leader after she attacked The Beautiful People (Madison Rayne and Velvet Sky) and Gail Kim, once again turning heel in the process
[105] On February 5, TNA announced that Stevens had been released from her contract following a backstage real–life physical altercation with Rebecca Hardy just a week before TNA’s tour in the United Kingdom
She is a playable character in the WWE ’12 and WWE ’13 video games
Stevens grew up in Carson, California and has a younger brother
[2] Prior to becoming a professional wrestler, she was employed as a social worker
[9] She also owned a business that put vending machines in several high schools
[2] Stevens’ family and friends helped her fund her career in wrestling, when she went to train in Japan
[2] She is also an investor in Nu Skin Enterprises, a line of skin and nutritional products
On May 30, 2011 Stevens announced that she was pregnant with her first child
[108] In July she made an inquiry about how many of her followers were “expecting as well”
[109] Two days after she competed in the 2012 Royal Rumble, a TMZ article claimed sources close to her informed them that she had given birth to a baby boy named Jamie on December 31, 2011
[110] This alleged claim from close sources was rephrased as fact within an hour by Pro Wrestling Torch
In March TMZ expanded the story by saying that Kia had told friends she had delivery a healthy boy on December 31, and that the child (gender unconfirmed) died an unspecified time prior to her being able to give birth
TMZ said she announced the birth as a success due to her emotional state at the time and fear of telling the truth after announcing the pregnancy on television
She also stated her intention to start a foundation for women who have experienced the loss of an unborn child
She is currently engaged to Dan Ouellette, with whom she had been in a relationship for four years prior to getting engaged
On August 6, 2012, weeks after she confirmed her WWE release, Stevens stated that she was on a mission to lose weight
She had recruited a team of fitness experts and a therapist so she could get back into wrestling shape
She also showed interest into turning the whole experience into a reality show
Recent photos have revealed a much slimmer Stevens

making money online while cooking in my kitchen

Julia Carolyn Child (maiden name, McWilliams;[1] August 15, 1912 – August 13, 2004) was an American chef, author, and television personality
She is recognized for bringing French cuisine to the American public with her debut cookbook, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, and her subsequent television programs, the most notable of which was The French Chef, which premiered in 1963
Child was born Julia Carolyn McWilliams in Pasadena, California, the daughter of John McWilliams, Jr
, a Princeton University graduate and prominent land manager, and his wife, the former Julia Carolyn (“Caro”) Weston, a paper-company heiress whose father, Byron Curtis Weston, served as lieutenant governor of Massachusetts
The eldest[2] of three children, she had a brother, John III (1914–2002), and a sister, Dorothy Dean Cousins (1917–2006)
Child attended Westridge School, Polytechnic School from fourth grade to ninth grade, then the Katherine Branson School in Ross, California, which was at the time a boarding school
[3] At six feet, two inches (1
88 m) tall, Child played tennis, golf, and basketball as a child and continued to play sports while attending Smith College, from which she graduated in 1934 with a major in English
[1] A press release issued by Smith in 2004 states that her major was history
Following her graduation from college, Child moved to New York City, where she worked as a copywriter for the advertising department of upscale home-furnishing firm W
Returning to California in 1937, she spent the next four years writing for local publications, working in advertising, and volunteering with the Junior League of Pasadena
Child joined the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) after finding that she was too tall to enlist in the Women’s Army Corps (WACs) or in the U
Navy’s WAVES
[6] She began her OSS career as a typist at its headquarters in Washington, but because of her education and experience soon was given a more responsible position as a top secret researcher working directly for the head of OSS, General William J
As a research assistant in the Secret Intelligence division, she typed 10,000 names on white note cards to keep track of officers
For a year, she worked at the OSS Emergency Rescue Equipment Section (ERES) in Washington, D
as a file clerk and then as an assistant to developers of a shark repellent needed to ensure that sharks would not explode ordnance targeting German U-boats
In 1944 she was posted to Kandy, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), where her responsibilities included “registering, cataloging and channeling a great volume of highly classified communications” for the OSS’s clandestine stations in Asia
[8] She was later posted to China, where she received the Emblem of Meritorious Civilian Service as head of the Registry of the OSS Secretariat
[9] For her service, Child received an award that cited her many virtues, including her “drive and inherent cheerfulness
“[7] As with other OSS records, her file was declassified in 2008, however, unlike other files, her complete file is available online
While in Ceylon, she met Paul Cushing Child, also an OSS employee, and the two were married September 1, 1946, in Lumberville, Pennsylvania,[11] later moving to Washington, D
A New Jersey native[12] who had lived in Paris as an artist and poet, Paul was known for his sophisticated palate,[13] and introduced his wife to fine cuisine
He joined the United States Foreign Service, and in 1948 the couple moved to Paris when the US State Department assigned Paul there as an exhibits officer with the United States Information Agency
[9] The couple had no children
Child repeatedly recalled her first meal in Rouen as a culinary revelation; once, she described the meal of oysters, sole meunière, and fine wine to The New York Times as “an opening up of the soul and spirit for me
” In Paris, she attended the famous Le Cordon Bleu cooking school and later studied privately with Max Bugnard and other master chefs
[14] She joined the women’s cooking club Le Cercle des Gourmettes, through which she met Simone Beck, who was writing a French cookbook for Americans with her friend Louisette Bertholle
Beck proposed that Child work with them, to make the book appeal to Americans
In 1951, Child, Beck, and Bertholle began to teach cooking to American women in Child’s Paris kitchen, calling their informal school L’école des trois gourmandes (The School of the Three Food Lovers)
For the next decade, as the Childs moved around Europe and finally to Cambridge, Massachusetts, the three researched and repeatedly tested recipes
Child translated the French into English, making the recipes detailed, interesting, and practical
In 1963, the Childs built a home near the Provence town of Plascassier in the hills above Cannes on property belonging to co-author Simone Beck and her husband, Jean Fischbacher
The Childs named it “La Pitchoune”, a Provençal word meaning “the little one” but over time the property was often affectionately referred to simply as “La Peetch”
The three would-be authors initially signed a contract with publisher Houghton Mifflin, which later rejected the manuscript for seeming too much like an encyclopedia
Finally, when it was first published in 1961 by Alfred A
Knopf, the 726-page Mastering the Art of French Cooking[16] was a best-seller and received critical acclaim that derived in part from the American interest in French culture in the early 1960s
Lauded for its helpful illustrations and precise attention to detail, and for making fine cuisine accessible, the book is still in print and is considered a seminal culinary work
Following this success, Child wrote magazine articles and a regular column for The Boston Globe newspaper
She would go on to publish nearly twenty titles under her name and with others
Many, though not all, were related to her television shows
Her last book was the autobiographical My Life in France, published posthumously in 2006 and written with her grand nephew, Alex Prud’homme
The book recounts Child’s life with her husband, Paul Child, in post-World War II France
A 1962 appearance on a book review show on what was then the National Educational Television (NET) station of Boston, WGBH-TV(now a major Public Broadcasting Service station), led to the inception of her first television cooking show after viewers enjoyed her demonstration of how to cook an omelette
The French Chef had its debut on February 11, 1963, on WGBH and was immediately successful
The show ran nationally for ten years and won Peabody and Emmy Awards, including the first Emmy award for an educational program
Though she was not the first television cook, Child was the most widely seen
She attracted the broadest audience with her cheery enthusiasm, distinctively charming warbly voice, and unpatronizing and unaffected manner
In 1972, The French Chef became the first television program to be captioned for the deaf, even though this was done using the preliminary technology of open-captioning
Child’s second book, The French Chef Cookbook, was a collection of the recipes she had demonstrated on the show
It was soon followed in 1971 by Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume Two, again in collaboration with Simone Beck, but not with Louisette Bertholle, with whom the professional relationship had ended
Child’s fourth book, From Julia Child’s Kitchen, was illustrated with her husband’s photographs and documented the color series of The French Chef, as well as providing an extensive library of kitchen notes compiled by Child during the course of the show
[citation needed]
In the 1970s and 1980s, she was the star of numerous television programs, including Julia Child & Company, Julia Child & More Company and Dinner at Julia’s
For the 1979 book Julia Child and More Company she won a National Book Award in category Current Interest
[17] In 1981 she founded the American Institute of Wine & Food,[18] with vintners Robert Mondavi and Richard Graff, and others, to “advance the understanding, appreciation and quality of wine and food,” a pursuit she had already begun with her books and television appearances
In 1989, she published what she considered her magnum opus, a book and instructional video series collectively entitled The Way To Cook
Child starred in four more series in the 1990s that featured guest chefs: Cooking with Master Chefs, In Julia’s Kitchen with Master Chefs, Baking with Julia, and Julia Child & Jacques Pépin Cooking at Home
She collaborated with Jacques Pépin many times for television programs and cookbooks
All of Child’s books during this time stemmed from the television series of the same names
Child’s use of ingredients like butter and cream has been questioned by food critics and modern-day nutritionists
She addressed these criticisms throughout her career, predicting that a “fanatical fear of food” would take over the country’s dining habits, and that focusing too much on nutrition takes the pleasure from enjoying food
[19][20] In a 1990 interview, Child said, “Everybody is overreacting
If fear of food continues, it will be the death of gastronomy in the United States
Fortunately, the French don’t suffer from the same hysteria we do
We should enjoy food and have fun
It is one of the simplest and nicest pleasures in life
Julia Child’s kitchen, designed by her husband, was the setting for three of her television shows
It is now on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, D
Beginning with In Julia’s Kitchen with Master Chefs, the Childs’ home kitchen in Cambridge was fully transformed into a functional set, with TV-quality lighting, three cameras positioned to catch all angles in the room, and a massive center island with a gas stovetop on one side and an electric stovetop on the other, but leaving the rest of the Childs’ appliances alone, including “my wall oven with its squeaking door
“[22] This kitchen backdrop hosted nearly all of Child’s 1990s television series
After the death of her beloved friend Simone Beck, Child relinquished La Pitchoune after a month long stay in June 1992 with her family, her niece, Phila, and close friend and biographer, Noël Riley Fitch
She turned the keys over to Jean Fischbacher’s sister, just as she and Paul had promised nearly 30 years earlier
Also in 1992, Julia spent five days in Sicily at the invitation of Regaleali Winery
American journalist Bob Spitz spent a brief time with Julia during that period while he was researching and writing his then working title, History of Eating and Cooking in America
Spitz took notes and made many recordings of his conversation with Child and these later formed the basis of a secondary biography on Child, published August 7, 2012 (Knopf), five days before the centennial of her birthdate
[23][24] Paul Child, who was ten years older than his wife, died in 1994 after living in a nursing home for five years following a series of strokes in 1989
In 2001, Child moved to a retirement community, donating her house and office to Smith College, which later sold the house
[26] She donated her kitchen, which her husband designed with high counters to accommodate her height, and which served as the set for three of her television series, to the National Museum of American History, where it is now on display
[27] Her iconic copper pots and pans were on display at Copia in Napa, California, until August 2009 when they were reunited with her kitchen at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History in Washington, D
In 2000, Child received the French Legion of Honour[28][29] and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000
[30] She was awarded the U
Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2003; she also received honorary doctorates from Harvard University, Johnson & Wales University (1995), Smith College (her alma mater), Brown University (2000),[31] and several other universities
On August 13, 2004, Julia Child died of kidney failure at her retirement community home, Casa Dorinda, in Montecito, California, two days before her 92nd birthday
[32] Her last meal was French onion soup
[33] Child ended her last book, My Life in France, with ”
thinking back on it now reminds that the pleasures of the table, and of life, are infinite – toujours bon appétit!”[25]
In 1995, Julia Child established The Julia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, a private charitable foundation to make grants to further her life’s work
The Foundation, originally set up in Massachusetts, later moved to Santa Barbara, California, where it is now headquartered
Inactive until after Julia’s death in 2004, the Foundation makes grants to other non-profits
[34] The grants support primarily gastronomy, the culinary arts and the further development of the professional food world, all matters of paramount importance to Julia Child during her lifetime
The Foundation’s website provides a dedicated page listing the names of grant recipients with a description of the organization and the grant provided by the Foundation
[35] One of the grant recipients is Heritage Radio Network which covers the world of food, drink and agriculture
Beyond making grants, the Foundation was also established to protect Julia Child’s legacy; it is the organization to approach to seek permission to use images of Julia Child and/or excerpts of her work
Many of these rights are jointly held with other organizations like her publishers and the Schlesinger Library at The Radcliffe Institute at Harvard University who may also need to be contacted
Recently, the Foundation has been more active in protecting these posthumous rights
Well known for her opposition to endorsements, the Foundation follows a similar policy regarding the use of Julia’s name and image for commercial purposes
The Julia Child Rose, known in the UK as the “Absolutely Fabulous” rose, is a golden butter/gold floribunda rose named after Child
On September 26, 2014, the US Postal Service issued 20 million copies of the “Celebrity Chefs Forever” stamp series, which featured portraits by Jason Seiler of five American chefs: Julia Child, Joyce Chen, James Beard, Edna Lewis, and Felipe Rojas-Lombardi
Child was a favorite of audiences from the moment of her television début on public television in 1963, and she was a familiar part of American culture and the subject of numerous references, including numerous parodies in television and radio programs and skits
Her great success on air may have been tied to her refreshingly pragmatic approach to the genre, “I think you have to decide who your audience is
If you don’t pick your audience, you’re lost because you’re not really talking to anybody
My audience is people who like to cook, who want to really learn how to do it
” In 1996, Julia Child was ranked No
46 on TV Guide’s 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time
In 2002, Child was the inspiration for “The Julie/Julia Project,” a popular cooking blog by Julie Powell that was the basis of Powell’s bestselling book, Julie and Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen, published in 2005, the year following Child’s death
The paperback version of the book was retitled Julie and Julia: My Year of Cooking Dangerously
[47][48][49] The blog and book, along with Child’s own memoir My Life in France, in turn inspired the 2009 feature film Julie & Julia in which Meryl Streep portrayed Child
For her performance, Streep received an Academy Award for Best Actress nomination
Child is reported to have been unimpressed by Powell’s blog, believing Powell’s determination to cook every recipe in Mastering the Art of French Cooking in a year to be a stunt
Child’s editor, Judith Jones, said in an interview: “Flinging around four-letter words when cooking isn’t attractive, to me or Julia
She didn’t want to endorse it
What came through on the blog was somebody who was doing it almost for the sake of a stunt
She would never really describe the end results, how delicious it was, and what she learned
Julia didn’t like what she called ‘the flimsies’
She didn’t suffer fools, if you know what I mean
On March 15, 2016, Twitch
tv started to stream Julia Child’s show The French Chef
This event was in celebration of both the launch of the cooking section of Twitch
tv and the anniversary of Child’s graduation from Le Cordon Bleu

How to get lots of traffic without spending any money

HIDDEN ERROR: Usage of “relatives” is not recognized
James Marshall “Jimi” Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter
Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as “arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music”
Born in Seattle, Washington, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15
In 1961, he enlisted in the US Army and trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division; he was granted an honorable discharge the following year
Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, and began playing gigs on the chitlin’ circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers’ backing band and later with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965
He then played with Curtis Knight and the Squires before moving to England in late 1966 after being discovered by Linda Keith, who in turn interested bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals in becoming his first manager
Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: “Hey Joe”, “Purple Haze”, and “The Wind Cries Mary”
He achieved fame in the US after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the US; it was Hendrix’s most commercially successful release and his first and only number one album
The world’s highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970 before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27
Hendrix was inspired musically by American rock and roll and electric blues
He favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, and was instrumental in utilizing the previously undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback
He helped to popularize the use of a wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock, and was the first artist to use stereophonic phasing effects in music recordings
Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: “Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source
Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began
Hendrix was the recipient of several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously
In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year, and in 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year
Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year
The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005
Rolling Stone ranked the band’s three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, and Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, and they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time
Jimi Hendrix was primarily of African-American descent
[3][4] His paternal grandmother, Zenora “Nora” Rose Moore, was one-quarter Cherokee
[5][nb 1] Hendrix’s paternal grandfather, Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix (born 1866), was the result of an extramarital affair between a black woman named Fanny, and a grain merchant from Urbana, Ohio or Illinois, one of the wealthiest white men in the area at that time
[7][8][nb 2] On June 10, 1919, Hendrix and Moore had a son they named James Allen Ross Hendrix; people called him Al
In 1941, Al met Lucille Jeter (1925–1958) at a dance in Seattle; they married on March 31, 1942
[11] Al, who had been drafted by the U
Army to serve in World War II, left to begin his basic training three days after the wedding
[12] Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 27, 1942, in Seattle, Washington; he was the first of Lucille’s five children
In 1946, Johnny’s parents changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and his late brother Leon Marshall
Stationed in Alabama at the time of Hendrix’s birth, Al was denied the standard military furlough afforded servicemen for childbirth; his commanding officer placed him in the stockade to prevent him from going AWOL to see his infant son in Seattle
He spent two months locked up without trial, and while in the stockade received a telegram announcing his son’s birth
[15][nb 4] During Al’s three-year absence, Lucille struggled to raise their son
[17] When Al was away, Hendrix was mostly cared for by family members and friends, especially Lucille’s sister Delores Hall and her friend Dorothy Harding
[18] Al received an honorable discharge from the US Army on September 1, 1945
Two months later, unable to find Lucille, Al went to the Berkeley, California home of a family friend named Mrs
Champ, who had taken care of and had attempted to adopt Hendrix; this is where Al saw his son for the first time
After returning from service, Al reunited with Lucille, but his inability to find steady work left the family impoverished
They both struggled with alcohol, and often fought when intoxicated
The violence sometimes drove Hendrix to withdraw and hide in a closet in their home
[20] His relationship with his brother Leon (born 1948) was close but precarious; with Leon in and out of foster care, they lived with an almost constant threat of fraternal separation
[21] In addition to Leon, Hendrix had three younger siblings: Joseph, born in 1949, Kathy in 1950, and Pamela, 1951, all of whom Al and Lucille gave up to foster care and adoption
[22] The family frequently moved, staying in cheap hotels and apartments around Seattle
On occasion, family members would take Hendrix to Vancouver to stay at his grandmother’s
A shy and sensitive boy, he was deeply affected by his life experiences
[23] In later years, he confided to a girlfriend that he had been the victim of sexual abuse by a man in uniform
[24] On December 17, 1951, when Hendrix was nine years old, his parents divorced; the court granted Al custody of him and Leon
At Horace Mann Elementary School in Seattle during the mid-1950s, Hendrix’s habit of carrying a broom with him to emulate a guitar gained the attention of the school’s social worker
After more than a year of his clinging to a broom like a security blanket, she wrote a letter requesting school funding intended for underprivileged children, insisting that leaving him without a guitar might result in psychological damage
[26] Her efforts failed, and Al refused to buy him a guitar
In 1957, while helping his father with a side-job, Hendrix found a ukulele amongst the garbage that they were removing from an older woman’s home
She told him that he could keep the instrument, which had only one string
[28] Learning by ear, he played single notes, following along to Elvis Presley songs, particularly Presley’s cover of Leiber and Stoller’s “Hound Dog”
[29][nb 6] By the age of thirty-three, Hendrix’s mother Lucille had developed cirrhosis of the liver, and on February 2, 1958, she died when her spleen ruptured
[31] Al refused to take James and Leon to attend their mother’s funeral; he instead gave them shots of whiskey and instructed them that was how men were supposed to deal with loss
[31][nb 7] In mid-1958, at age 15, Hendrix acquired his first acoustic guitar, for $5
[32] He earnestly applied himself, playing the instrument for several hours daily, watching others and getting tips from more experienced guitarists, and listening to blues artists such as Muddy Waters, B
King, Howlin’ Wolf, and Robert Johnson
[33] The first tune Hendrix learned how to play was the theme from Peter Gunn
Soon after he acquired the acoustic guitar, Hendrix formed his first band, the Velvetones
Without an electric guitar, he could barely be heard over the sound of the group
After about three months, he realized that he needed an electric guitar in order to continue
[35] In mid-1959, his father relented and bought him a white Supro Ozark
[35] Hendrix’s first gig was with an unnamed band in the basement of a synagogue, Seattle’s Temple De Hirsch, but after too much showing off, the band fired him between sets
[36] He later joined the Rocking Kings, which played professionally at venues such as the Birdland club
When someone stole his guitar after he left it backstage overnight, Al bought him a red Silvertone Danelectro
[37] In 1958, Hendrix completed his studies at Washington Junior High School, though he did not graduate from Garfield High School
Before Hendrix was 19 years old, law enforcement authorities had twice caught him riding in stolen cars
When given a choice between spending time in prison or joining the Army, he chose the latter and enlisted on May 31, 1961
[41] After completing eight weeks of basic training at Fort Ord, California, he was assigned to the 101st Airborne Division and stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky
[42] He arrived there on November 8, and soon afterward he wrote to his father: “There’s nothing but physical training and harassment here for two weeks, then when you go to jump school 
you get hell
They work you to death, fussing and fighting
“[43] In his next letter home, Hendrix, who had left his guitar at his girlfriend Betty Jean Morgan’s house in Seattle, asked his father to send it to him as soon as possible, stating: “I really need it now
“[43] His father obliged and sent the red Silvertone Danelectro on which Hendrix had hand-painted the words “Betty Jean”, to Fort Campbell
[44] His apparent obsession with the instrument contributed to his neglect of his duties, which led to verbal taunting and physical abuse from his peers, who at least once hid the guitar from him until he had begged for its return
In November 1961, fellow serviceman Billy Cox walked past an army club and heard Hendrix playing guitar
[46] Intrigued by the proficient playing, which he described as a combination of “John Lee Hooker and Beethoven”, Cox borrowed a bass guitar and the two jammed
[47] Within a few weeks, they began performing at base clubs on the weekends with other musicians in a loosely organized band called the Casuals
Hendrix completed his paratrooper training in just over eight months, and Major General C
Rich awarded him the prestigious Screaming Eagles patch on January 11, 1962
[43] By February, his personal conduct had begun to draw criticism from his superiors
They labeled him an unqualified marksman and often caught him napping while on duty and failing to report for bed checks
[49] On May 24, Hendrix’s platoon sergeant, James C
Spears, filed a report in which he stated: “He has no interest whatsoever in the Army 
It is my opinion that Private Hendrix will never come up to the standards required of a soldier
I feel that the military service will benefit if he is discharged as soon as possible
“[50] On June 29, 1962, Captain Gilbert Batchman granted Hendrix an honorable discharge on the basis of unsuitability
[51] Hendrix later spoke of his dislike of the army and falsely stated that he had received a medical discharge after breaking his ankle during his 26th parachute jump
In September 1963, after Cox was discharged from the Army, he and Hendrix moved to Clarksville, Tennessee and formed a band called the King Kasuals
[54] Hendrix had watched Butch Snipes play with his teeth in Seattle and by now Alphonso ‘Baby Boo’ Young, the other guitarist in the band, was performing this guitar gimmick
[55] Not to be upstaged, Hendrix learned to play with his teeth
He later commented: “The idea of doing that came to me
in Tennessee
Down there you have to play with your teeth or else you get shot
There’s a trail of broken teeth all over the stage
“[56] Although they began playing low-paying gigs at obscure venues, the band eventually moved to Nashville’s Jefferson Street, which was the traditional heart of the city’s black community and home to a thriving rhythm and blues music scene
[57] They earned a brief residency playing at a popular venue in town, the Club del Morocco, and for the next two years Hendrix made a living performing at a circuit of venues throughout the South who were affiliated with the Theater Owners’ Booking Association (TOBA), widely known as the Chitlin’ Circuit
[58] In addition to playing in his own band, Hendrix performed as a backing musician for various soul, R&B, and blues musicians, including Wilson Pickett, Slim Harpo, Sam Cooke, and Jackie Wilson
In January 1964, feeling he had outgrown the circuit artistically and frustrated by having to follow the rules of bandleaders, Hendrix decided to venture out on his own
He moved into the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, where he befriended Lithofayne Pridgon, known as “Faye”, who became his girlfriend
[60] A Harlem native with connections throughout the area’s music scene, Pridgon provided him with shelter, support, and encouragement
[61] Hendrix also met the Allen twins, Arthur and Albert
[62][nb 10] In February 1964, Hendrix won first prize in the Apollo Theater amateur contest
[64] Hoping to secure a career opportunity, he played the Harlem club circuit and sat in with various bands
At the recommendation of a former associate of Joe Tex, Ronnie Isley granted Hendrix an audition that led to an offer to become the guitarist with the Isley Brothers’ back-up band, the I
Specials, which he readily accepted
In March 1964, Hendrix recorded the two-part single “Testify” with the Isley Brothers
Released in June, it failed to chart
[66] In May, he provided guitar instrumentation for the Don Covay song, “Mercy Mercy”
Issued in August by Rosemart Records and distributed by Atlantic, the track reached number 35 on the Billboard chart
Hendrix toured with the Isleys during much of 1964, but near the end of October, after growing tired of playing the same set every night, he left the band
[68][nb 11] Soon afterward, Hendrix joined Little Richard’s touring band, the Upsetters
[70] During a stop in Los Angeles in February 1965, he recorded his first and only single with Richard, “I Don’t Know What You Got (But It’s Got Me)”, written by Don Covay and released by Vee-Jay Records
[71] Richard’s popularity was waning at the time, and the single peaked at number 92, where it remained for one week before dropping off the chart
[72][nb 12] Hendrix met singer Rosa Lee Brooks while staying at the Wilcox Hotel in Hollywood, and she invited him to participate in a recording session for her single, which included “My Diary” as the A-side, and “Utee” as the B-side
[74] He played guitar on both tracks, which also included background vocals by Arthur Lee
The single failed to chart, but Hendrix and Lee began a friendship that lasted several years; Hendrix later became an ardent supporter of Lee’s band, Love
In July 1965, on Nashville’s Channel 5 Night Train, Hendrix made his first television appearance
Performing in Little Richard’s ensemble band, he backed up vocalists Buddy and Stacy on “Shotgun”
The video recording of the show marks the earliest known footage of Hendrix performing
[70] Richard and Hendrix often clashed over tardiness, wardrobe, and Hendrix’s stage antics, and in late July, Richard’s brother Robert fired him
[75] He then briefly rejoined the Isley Brothers, and recorded a second single with them, “Move Over and Let Me Dance” backed with “Have You Ever Been Disappointed”
[76] Later that year, he joined a New York-based R&B band, Curtis Knight and the Squires, after meeting Knight in the lobby of a hotel where both men were staying
[77] Hendrix performed with them for eight months
[78] In October 1965, he and Knight recorded the single, “How Would You Feel” backed with “Welcome Home” and on October 15, Hendrix signed a three-year recording contract with entrepreneur Ed Chalpin
[79] While the relationship with Chalpin was short-lived, his contract remained in force, which later caused legal and career problems for Hendrix
[80][nb 13] During his time with Knight, Hendrix briefly toured with Joey Dee and the Starliters, and worked with King Curtis on several recordings including Ray Sharpe’s two-part single, “Help Me”
[82] Hendrix earned his first composer credits for two instrumentals, “Hornets Nest” and “Knock Yourself Out”, released as a Curtis Knight and the Squires single in 1966
[83][nb 14]
Feeling restricted by his experiences as an R&B sideman, Hendrix moved to New York City’s Greenwich Village in 1966, which had a vibrant and diverse music scene
[88] There, he was offered a residency at the Cafe Wha? on MacDougal Street and formed his own band that June, Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, which included future Spirit guitarist Randy California
[89][nb 15] The Blue Flames played at several clubs in New York and Hendrix began developing his guitar style and material that he would soon use with the Experience
[91][92] In September, they gave some of their last concerts at the Cafe au Go Go, as John Hammond Jr
‘s backing group
[93][nb 16]
By May 1966, Hendrix was struggling to earn a living wage playing the R&B circuit, so he briefly rejoined Curtis Knight and the Squires for an engagement at one of New York City’s most popular nightspots, the Cheetah Club
[94] During a performance, Linda Keith, the girlfriend of Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards, noticed Hendrix
She remembered: “[His] playing mesmerised me”
[94] She invited him to join her for a drink; he accepted and the two became friends
While he was playing with Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, Keith recommended Hendrix to Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham and producer Seymour Stein
They failed to see Hendrix’s musical potential, and rejected him
[95] She then referred him to Chas Chandler, who was leaving the Animals and interested in managing and producing artists
Chandler liked the Billy Roberts song “Hey Joe”, and was convinced he could create a hit single with the right artist
[96] Impressed with Hendrix’s version of the song, he brought him to London on September 24, 1966,[97] and signed him to a management and production contract with himself and ex-Animals manager Michael Jeffery
[98] On September 24, Hendrix gave an impromptu solo performance at the Scotch-Club, and later that night he began a relationship with Kathy Etchingham that lasted for two and a half years
[99][nb 17]
Following Hendrix’s arrival in London, Chandler began recruiting members for a band designed to highlight the guitarist’s talents, the Jimi Hendrix Experience
[101] Hendrix met guitarist Noel Redding at an audition for the New Animals, where Redding’s knowledge of blues progressions impressed Hendrix, who stated that he also liked Redding’s hairstyle
[102] Chandler asked Redding if he wanted to play bass guitar in Hendrix’s band; Redding agreed
[102] Chandler then began looking for a drummer and soon after, he contacted Mitch Mitchell through a mutual friend
Mitchell, who had recently been fired from Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, participated in a rehearsal with Redding and Hendrix where they found common ground in their shared interest in rhythm and blues
When Chandler phoned Mitchell later that day to offer him the position, he readily accepted
[103] Chandler also convinced Hendrix to change the spelling of his first name from Jimmy to the exotic looking Jimi
On September 30, Chandler brought Hendrix to the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, where Cream was scheduled to perform, and where Hendrix and Eric Clapton met
Clapton later commented: “He asked if he could play a couple of numbers
I said, ‘Of course’, but I had a funny feeling about him
“[101] Halfway through Cream’s set, Hendrix took the stage and performed a frantic version of the Howlin’ Wolf song “Killing Floor”
[101] In 1989, Clapton described the performance: “He played just about every style you could think of, and not in a flashy way
I mean he did a few of his tricks, like playing with his teeth and behind his back, but it wasn’t in an upstaging sense at all, and that was it 
He walked off, and my life was never the same again”
In mid-October 1966, Chandler arranged an engagement for the Experience as Johnny Hallyday’s supporting act during a brief tour of France
[104] Thus, the Jimi Hendrix Experience performed their very first show on October 13, 1966, at the Novelty in Evreux
[105] Their enthusiastically received 15-minute performance at the Olympia theatre in Paris on October 18 marks the earliest known recording of the band
[104] In late October, Kit Lambert and Chris Stamp, managers of the Who, signed the Experience to their newly formed label, Track Records, which released the Experience’s first single on October 23
[106] “Hey Joe”, which included a female chorus provided by the Breakaways, was backed by Hendrix’s first songwriting effort after arriving in England, “Stone Free”
In mid-November, they performed at the Bag O’Nails nightclub in London, with Clapton, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend, Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, and Kevin Ayers in attendance
[108] Ayers described the crowd’s reaction as stunned disbelief: “All the stars were there, and I heard serious comments, you know ‘shit’, ‘Jesus’, ‘damn’ and other words worse than that
“[108] The successful performance earned Hendrix his first interview, published in Record Mirror with the headline: “Mr
[108] “Now hear this 
we predict that [Hendrix] is going to whirl around the business like a tornado”, wrote Bill Harry, who asked the rhetorical question: “Is that full, big, swinging sound really being created by only three people?”[109] Hendrix commented: “We don’t want to be classed in any category 
If it must have a tag, I’d like it to be called, ‘Free Feeling’
It’s a mixture of rock, freak-out, rave and blues”
[110] After appearances on the UK television shows Ready Steady Go! and the Top of the Pops, “Hey Joe” entered the UK charts on December 29, 1966, peaking at number six
[111] Further success came in March 1967 with the UK number three hit “Purple Haze”, and in May with “The Wind Cries Mary”, which remained on the UK charts for eleven weeks, peaking at number six
On March 31, 1967, while the Experience waited to perform at the London Astoria, Hendrix and Chandler discussed ways in which they could increase the band’s media exposure
When Chandler asked journalist Keith Altham for advice, Altham suggested that they needed to do something more dramatic than the stage show of the Who, which involved the smashing of instruments
Hendrix joked: “Maybe I can smash up an elephant”, to which Altham replied: “Well, it’s a pity you can’t set fire to your guitar”
[113] Chandler then asked road manager Gerry Stickells to procure some lighter fluid
During the show, Hendrix gave an especially dynamic performance before setting his guitar on fire at the end of a 45-minute set
In the wake of the stunt, members of London’s press labeled Hendrix the “Black Elvis” and the “Wild Man of Borneo”
[114][nb 18]
After the moderate UK chart success of their first two singles, “Hey Joe” and “Purple Haze”, the Experience began assembling material for a full-length LP
[116] Recording began at De Lane Lea Studios and later moved to the prestigious Olympic Studios
[116] The album, Are You Experienced, features a diversity of musical styles, including blues tracks such as “Red House” and “Highway Chile”, and the R&B song “Remember”
[117] It also included the experimental science fiction piece, “Third Stone from the Sun” and the post-modern soundscapes of the title track, with prominent backwards guitar and drums
[118] “I Don’t Live Today” served as a medium for Hendrix’s guitar feedback improvisation and “Fire” was driven by Mitchell’s drumming
Released in the UK on May 12, 1967, Are You Experienced spent 33 weeks on the charts, peaking at number two
[119][nb 19] It was prevented from reaching the top spot by the Beatles’ Sgt
Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
[121][nb 20] On June 4, 1967, Hendrix opened a show at the Saville Theatre in London with his rendition of Sgt
Pepper’s title track, which was released just three days previous
Beatles manager Brian Epstein owned the Saville at the time, and both George Harrison and Paul McCartney attended the performance
McCartney described the moment: “The curtains flew back and he came walking forward playing ‘Sgt
It’s a pretty major compliment in anyone’s book
I put that down as one of the great honors of my career
“[122] Released in the U
on August 23 by Reprise Records, Are You Experienced reached number five on the Billboard 200
[123][nb 21]
In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World magazine, described Are You Experienced as “the album that shook the world 
leaving it forever changed”
[125][nb 22] In 2005, Rolling Stone called the double-platinum LP Hendrix’s “epochal debut”, and they ranked it the 15th greatest album of all time, noting his “exploitation of amp howl”, and characterizing his guitar playing as “incendiary 
historic in itself”
Although popular in Europe at the time, the Experience’s first U
single, “Hey Joe”, failed to reach the Billboard Hot 100 chart upon its release on May 1, 1967
[129] The group’s fortunes improved when McCartney recommended them to the organizers of the Monterey Pop Festival
He insisted that the event would be incomplete without Hendrix, whom he called “an absolute ace on the guitar”, and he agreed to join the board of organizers on the condition that the Experience perform at the festival in mid-June
Introduced by Brian Jones as “the most exciting performer [he had] ever heard”, Hendrix opened with a fast arrangement of Howlin’ Wolf’s song “Killing Floor”, wearing what author Keith Shadwick described as “clothes as exotic as any on display elsewhere
“[131] Shadwick wrote: “[Hendrix] was not only something utterly new musically, but an entirely original vision of what a black American entertainer should and could look like
“[132] The Experience went on to perform renditions of “Hey Joe”, B
King’s “Rock Me Baby”, Chip Taylor’s “Wild Thing”, and Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, as well as four original compositions: “Foxy Lady”, “Can You See Me”, “The Wind Cries Mary”, and “Purple Haze”
[122] The set ended with Hendrix destroying his guitar and tossing pieces of it out to the audience
[133] Rolling Stone’s Alex Vadukul wrote:
When Jimi Hendrix set his guitar on fire at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival he created one of rock’s most perfect moments
Standing in the front row of that concert was a 17-year-old boy named Ed Caraeff
Caraeff had never seen Hendrix before nor heard his music, but he had a camera with him and there was one shot left in his roll of film
As Hendrix lit his guitar, Caraeff took a final photo
It would become one of the most famous images in rock and roll
[134][nb 23]
Caraeff stood on a chair next to the edge of the stage while taking a series of four monochrome pictures of Hendrix burning his guitar
[137][nb 24] Caraeff was close enough to the fire that he had to use his camera as a shield to protect his face from the heat
Rolling Stone later colorized the image, matching it with other pictures taken at the festival before using the shot for a 1987 magazine cover
[137] According to author Gail Buckland, the fourth and final frame of “Hendrix kneeling in front of his burning guitar, hands raised, is one of the most famous images in rock
“[137] Author and historian Matthew C
Whitaker wrote: “Hendrix’s burning of his guitar became an iconic image in rock history and brought him national attention
“[138] The Los Angeles Times asserted that, upon leaving the stage, Hendrix “graduated from rumor to legend”
[139] Author John McDermott commented: “Hendrix left the Monterey audience stunned and in disbelief at what they’d just heard and seen
“[140] According to Hendrix: “I decided to destroy my guitar at the end of a song as a sacrifice
You sacrifice things you love
I love my guitar
“[141] The performance was filmed by D
Pennebaker, and later included in the concert documentary Monterey Pop, which helped Hendrix gain popularity with the U
Immediately after the festival, the Experience were booked for a series of five concerts at Bill Graham’s Fillmore, with Big Brother and the Holding Company and Jefferson Airplane
The Experience outperformed Jefferson Airplane during the first two nights, and replaced them at the top of the bill on the fifth
[143] Following their successful West Coast introduction, which included a free open-air concert at Golden Gate Park and a concert at the Whisky a Go Go, the Experience were booked as the opening act for the first American tour of the Monkees
[144] They requested Hendrix as a supporting act because they were fans, but their young audience disliked the Experience, who left the tour after six shows
[145] Chandler later admitted that he engineered the tour in an effort to gain publicity for Hendrix
The second Experience album, Axis: Bold as Love, opens with the track “EXP”, which innovatively utilized microphonic and harmonic feedback
[147] It also showcased an experimental stereo panning effect in which sounds emanating from Hendrix’s guitar move through the stereo image, revolving around the listener
[148] The piece reflected his growing interest in science fiction and outer space
[149] He composed the album’s title track and finale around two verses and two choruses, during which he pairs emotions with personas, comparing them to colors
[150] The song’s coda features the first recording of stereo phasing
[151][nb 25] Shadwick described the composition as “possibly the most ambitious piece on Axis, the extravagant metaphors of the lyrics suggesting a growing confidence” in Hendrix’s songwriting
[153] His guitar playing throughout the song is marked by chordal arpeggios and contrapuntal motion, with tremolo-picked partial chords providing the musical foundation for the chorus, which culminates in what musicologist Andy Aledort described as “simply one of the greatest electric guitar solos ever played”
[154] The track fades out on tremolo-picked thirty-second note double stops
The scheduled release date for Axis was almost delayed when Hendrix lost the master tape of side one of the LP, leaving it in the back seat of a London taxi
[156] With the deadline looming, Hendrix, Chandler, and engineer Eddie Kramer remixed most of side one in a single overnight session, but they could not match the quality of the lost mix of “If 6 Was 9”
Bassist Noel Redding had a tape recording of this mix, which had to be smoothed out with an iron as it had gotten wrinkled
[157] During the verses, Hendrix doubled his singing with a guitar line which he played one octave lower than his vocals
[158] Hendrix voiced his disappointment about having re-mixed the album so quickly, and he felt that it could have been better had they been given more time
Axis featured psychedelic cover art that depicts Hendrix and the Experience as various forms of Vishnu, incorporating a painting of them by Roger Law, from a photo-portrait by Karl Ferris
[159] The painting was then superimposed on a copy of a mass-produced religious poster
[160] Hendrix stated that the cover, which Track spent $5,000 producing, would have been more appropriate had it highlighted his American Indian heritage
[161] He commented: “You got it wrong 
I’m not that kind of Indian
“[161] Track released the album in the UK on December 1, 1967, where it peaked at number five, spending 16 weeks on the charts
[162] In February 1968, Axis: Bold as Love reached number three in the U
While author and journalist Richie Unterberger described Axis as the least impressive Experience album, according to author Peter Doggett, the release “heralded a new subtlety in Hendrix’s work”
[164] Mitchell commented: “Axis was the first time that it became apparent that Jimi was pretty good working behind the mixing board, as well as playing, and had some positive ideas of how he wanted things recorded
It could have been the start of any potential conflict between him and Chas in the studio
Recording for the Experience’s third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, began at the newly opened Record Plant Studios, with Chandler as producer and engineers Eddie Kramer and Gary Kellgren
[166] As the sessions progressed, Chandler became increasingly frustrated with Hendrix’s perfectionism and his demands for repeated takes
[167] Hendrix also allowed numerous friends and guests to join them in the studio, which contributed to a chaotic and crowded environment in the control room and led Chandler to sever his professional relationship with Hendrix
[167] Redding later recalled: “There were tons of people in the studio; you couldn’t move
It was a party, not a session
“[168] Redding, who had formed his own band in mid-1968, Fat Mattress, found it increasingly difficult to fulfill his commitments with the Experience, so Hendrix played many of the bass parts on Electric Ladyland
[167] The album’s cover stated that it was “produced and directed by Jimi Hendrix”
[167][nb 26]
During the Electric Ladyland recording sessions, Hendrix began experimenting with other combinations of musicians, including Jefferson Airplane’s Jack Casady and Traffic’s Steve Winwood, who played bass and organ, respectively, on the fifteen-minute slow-blues jam, “Voodoo Chile”
[167] During the album’s production, Hendrix appeared at an impromptu jam with B
King, Al Kooper, and Elvin Bishop
[170][nb 27] Electric Ladyland was released on October 25, and by mid-November it had reached number one in the U
, spending two weeks at the top spot
[172] The double LP was Hendrix’s most commercially successful release and his only number one album
[173] It peaked at number six in the UK, spending 12 weeks on the chart
[112] Electric Ladyland included Hendrix’s cover of Bob Dylan’s song, “All Along the Watchtower”, which became Hendrix’s highest-selling single and his only U
top 40 hit, peaking at number 20; the single reached number five in the UK
[174] “Burning of the Midnight Lamp”, which was his first recorded song to feature the use of a wah-wah pedal, was added to the album
[175] It was originally released as his fourth single in the UK in August 1967[176] and reached number 18 in the charts
In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World magazine, described Electric Ladyland as “Hendrix’s masterpiece”
[178] According to author Michael Heatley, “most critics agree” that the album is “the fullest realization of Jimi’s far-reaching ambitions
“[167] In 2004, author Peter Doggett commented: “For pure experimental genius, melodic flair, conceptual vision and instrumental brilliance, Electric Ladyland remains a prime contender for the status of rock’s greatest album
“[179] Doggett described the LP as “a display of musical virtuosity never surpassed by any rock musician
In January 1969, after an absence of more than six months, Hendrix briefly moved back into his girlfriend Kathy Etchingham’s Brook Street apartment, which was next door to the Handel House Museum in the West End of London
[180][nb 28] During this time, the Experience toured Scandinavia, Germany, and gave their final two performances in France
[182] On February 18 and 24, they played sold-out concerts at London’s Royal Albert Hall, which were the last European appearances of this line-up
[183][nb 29]
By February 1969, Redding had grown weary of Hendrix’s unpredictable work ethic and his creative control over the Experience’s music
[184] During the previous month’s European tour, interpersonal relations within the group had deteriorated, particularly between Hendrix and Redding
[185] In his diary, Redding documented the building frustration during early 1969 recording sessions: “On the first day, as I nearly expected, there was nothing doing 
On the second it was no show at all
I went to the pub for three hours, came back, and it was still ages before Jimi ambled in
Then we argued 
On the last day, I just watched it happen for a while, and then went back to my flat
“[185] The last Experience sessions that included Redding—a re-recording of “Stone Free” for use as a possible single release—took place on April 14 at Olmstead and the Record Plant in New York
[186] Hendrix then flew bassist Billy Cox to New York; they started recording and rehearsing together on April 21
The last performance of the original Experience line-up took place on June 29, 1969, at Barry Fey’s Denver Pop Festival, a three-day event held at Denver’s Mile High Stadium that was marked by police using tear gas to control the audience
[188] The band narrowly escaped from the venue in the back of a rental truck, which was partly crushed by fans who had climbed on top of the vehicle
[189] Before the show, a journalist angered Redding by asking why he was there; the reporter then informed him that two weeks earlier Hendrix announced that he had been replaced with Billy Cox
[190] The next day, Redding quit the Experience and returned to London
[188] He announced that he had left the band and intended to pursue a solo career, blaming Hendrix’s plans to expand the group without allowing for his input as a primary reason for leaving
[191] Redding later commented: “Mitch and I hung out a lot together, but we’re English
If we’d go out, Jimi would stay in his room
But any bad feelings came from us being three guys who were traveling too hard, getting too tired, and taking too many drugs 
I liked Hendrix
I don’t like Mitchell
Soon after Redding’s departure, Hendrix began lodging at the eight-bedroom Ashokan House, in the hamlet of Boiceville near Woodstock in upstate New York, where he had spent some time vacationing in mid-1969
[193] Manager Michael Jeffery arranged the accommodations in the hope that the respite might encourage Hendrix to write material for a new album
During this time, Mitchell was unavailable for commitments made by Jeffery, which included Hendrix’s first appearance on U
TV—on The Dick Cavett Show—where he was backed by the studio orchestra, and an appearance on The Tonight Show where he appeared with Cox and session drummer Ed Shaughnessy
By 1969, Hendrix was the world’s highest-paid rock musician
[195] In August, he headlined the Woodstock Music and Art Fair that included many of the most popular bands of the time
[196] For the concert, he added rhythm guitarist Larry Lee and conga players Juma Sultan and Jerry Velez
The band rehearsed for less than two weeks before the performance, and according to Mitchell, they never connected musically
[197] Before arriving at the engagement, he heard reports that the size of the audience had grown to epic proportions, which gave him cause for concern as he did not enjoy performing for large crowds
[198] He was an important draw for the event, and although he accepted substantially less money for the appearance than his usual fee he was the festival’s highest-paid performer
[199][nb 30] As his scheduled time slot of midnight on Sunday drew closer, he indicated that he preferred to wait and close the show in the morning; the band took the stage around 8:00 a
[201] By the time of their set, Hendrix had been awake for more than three days
[202] The audience, which peaked at an estimated 400,000 people, was now reduced to 30–40,000, many of whom had waited to catch a glimpse of Hendrix before leaving during his performance
[198] The festival MC, Chip Monck, introduced the group as the Jimi Hendrix Experience, but Hendrix clarified: “We decided to change the whole thing around and call it Gypsy Sun and Rainbows
For short, it’s nothin’ but a Band of Gypsys”
Hendrix’s performance featured a rendition of the U
national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner”, during which he used copious amounts of amplifier feedback, distortion, and sustain to replicate the sounds made by rockets and bombs
[204] Although contemporary political pundits described his interpretation as a statement against the Vietnam War, three weeks later Hendrix explained its meaning: “We’re all Americans 
it was like ‘Go America!’
 We play it the way the air is in America today
The air is slightly static, see”
[205] Immortalized in the 1970 documentary film, Woodstock, his guitar-driven version would become part of the sixties Zeitgeist
[206] Pop critic Al Aronowitz of The New York Post wrote: “It was the most electrifying moment of Woodstock, and it was probably the single greatest moment of the sixties
“[205] Images of the performance showing Hendrix wearing a blue-beaded white leather jacket with fringe, a red head-scarf, and blue jeans are widely regarded as iconic pictures that capture a defining moment of the era
[207][nb 31] He played “Hey Joe” during the encore, concluding the 3½-day festival
Upon leaving the stage, he collapsed from exhaustion
[206][nb 32] In 2011, the editors of Guitar World placed his rendition of “The Star-Spangled Banner” at Woodstock at number one in their list of his 100 greatest performances
A legal dispute arose in 1966 regarding a record contract that Hendrix had entered into the previous year with producer Ed Chalpin
[211] After two years of litigation, the parties agreed to a resolution that granted Chalpin the distribution rights to an album of original Hendrix material
Hendrix decided that they would record the LP, Band of Gypsys, during two live appearances
[212] In preparation for the shows he formed an all-black power-trio with Cox and drummer Buddy Miles, formerly with Wilson Pickett, the Electric Flag, and the Buddy Miles Express
[213] Critic John Rockwell described Hendrix and Miles as jazz-rock fusionists, and their collaboration as pioneering
[214] Others identified a funk and soul influence in their music
[215] Concert promoter Bill Graham called the shows “the most brilliant, emotional display of virtuoso electric guitar” that he had ever heard
[216] Biographers have speculated that Hendrix formed the band in an effort to appease members of the Black Power movement and others in the black communities who called for him to use his fame to speak-up for civil rights
Hendrix had been recording with Cox since April and jamming with Miles since September, and the trio wrote and rehearsed material which they performed at a series of four shows over two nights on December 31 and January 1, at the Fillmore East
They used recordings of these concerts to assemble the LP, which was produced by Hendrix
[218] The album includes the track “Machine Gun”, which musicologist Andy Aledort described as the pinnacle of Hendrix’s career, and “the premiere example of [his] unparalleled genius as a rock guitarist 
In this performance, Jimi transcended the medium of rock music, and set an entirely new standard for the potential of electric guitar
“[219] During the song’s extended instrumental breaks, Hendrix created sounds with his guitar that sonically represented warfare, including rockets, bombs, and diving planes
The Band of Gypsys album was the only official live Hendrix LP made commercially available during his lifetime; several tracks from the Woodstock and Monterey shows were released later that year
[221] The album was released in April 1970 by Capitol Records; it reached the top ten in both the U
[216] That same month a single was issued with “Stepping Stone” as the A-side and “Izabella” as the B-side, but Hendrix was dissatisfied with the quality of the mastering and he demanded that it be withdrawn and re-mixed, preventing the songs from charting and resulting in Hendrix’s least successful single; it was also his last
On January 28, 1970, a third and final Band of Gypsys appearance took place; they performed during a music festival at Madison Square Garden benefiting the anti-Vietnam War Moratorium Committee titled the “Winter Festival for Peace”
[223] American blues guitarist Johnny Winter was backstage before the concert; he recalled: “[Hendrix] came in with his head down, sat on the couch alone, and put his head in his hands 
He didn’t move until it was time for the show
“[224] Minutes after taking the stage he snapped a vulgar response at a woman who had shouted a request for “Foxy Lady”
He then began playing “Earth Blues” before telling the audience: “That’s what happens when earth fucks with space”
[224] Moments later, he briefly sat down on the drum riser before leaving the stage
[225] Both Miles and Redding later stated that Jeffery had given Hendrix LSD before the performance
[226] Miles believed that Jeffery gave Hendrix the drugs in an effort to sabotage the current band and bring about the return of the original Experience lineup
[225] Jeffery fired Miles after the show and Cox quit, ending the Band of Gypsys
Soon after the abruptly ended Band of Gypsys performance and their subsequent dissolution, Jeffery made arrangements to reunite the original Experience line-up
[228] Although Hendrix, Mitchell, and Redding were interviewed by Rolling Stone in February 1970 as a united group, Hendrix never intended to work with Redding
[229] When Redding returned to New York in anticipation of rehearsals with a reformed Experience, he was told that he had been replaced with Cox
[230] During an interview with Rolling Stone’s Keith Altham, Hendrix defended the decision: “It’s nothing personal against Noel, but we finished what we were doing with the Experience and Billy’s style of playing suits the new group better
“[228] Although the lineup of Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox became known as the Cry of Love band, after their accompanying tour, billing, advertisements, and tickets were printed with the New Jimi Hendrix Experience or occasionally just Jimi Hendrix
During the first half of 1970, Hendrix sporadically worked on material for what would have been his next LP
[222] Many of the tracks were posthumously released in 1971 as The Cry of Love
[232] He had started writing songs for the album in 1968, but in April 1970 he told Keith Altham that the project had been abandoned
[222] Soon afterward, he and his band took a break from recording and began the Cry of Love tour at the L
Forum, performing for 20,000 people
[233] Set-lists during the tour included numerous Experience tracks as well as a selection of newer material
[233] Several shows were recorded, and they produced some of Hendrix’s most memorable live performances
At one of them, the second Atlanta International Pop Festival, on July 4, he played to the largest American audience of his career
[234] According to authors Scott Schinder and Andy Schwartz, as many as 500,000 people attended the concert
[234] On July 17, they appeared at the New York Pop Festival; Hendrix had again consumed too many drugs before the show, and the set was considered a disaster
[235] The American leg of the tour, which included 32 performances, ended at Honolulu, Hawaii, on August 1, 1970
[236] This would be Hendrix’s final concert appearance in the U
In 1968, Hendrix and Jeffery jointly invested in the purchase of the Generation Club in Greenwich Village
[181] They had initially planned to reopen the establishment, but after an audit revealed that Hendrix had incurred exorbitant fees by block-booking lengthy sessions at peak rates they decided that the building would better serve them as a recording studio
[238] With a facility of his own, Hendrix could work as much as he wanted while also reducing his recording expenditures, which had reached a reported $300,000 annually
[239] Architect and acoustician John Storyk designed Electric Lady Studios for Hendrix, who requested that they avoid right angles where possible
With round windows, an ambient lighting machine, and a psychedelic mural, Storyk wanted the studio to have a relaxing environment that would encourage Hendrix’s creativity
[239] The project took twice as long as planned and cost twice as much as Hendrix and Jeffery had budgeted, with their total investment estimated at $1 million
[240][nb 33]
Hendrix first used Electric Lady on June 15, 1970, when he jammed with Steve Winwood and Chris Wood of Traffic; the next day, he recorded his first track there, “Night Bird Flying”
[241] The studio officially opened for business on August 25, and a grand opening party was held the following day
[241] Immediately afterwards, Hendrix left for England; he never returned to the States
[242] He boarded an Air India flight for London with Cox, joining Mitchell for a performance as the headlining act of the Isle of Wight Festival
When the European leg of the Cry of Love tour began, Hendrix was longing for his new studio and creative outlet, and was not eager to fulfill the commitment
On September 2, 1970, he abandoned a performance in Aarhus after three songs, stating: “I’ve been dead a long time”
[244] Four days later, he gave his final concert appearance, at the Isle of Fehmarn Festival in Germany
[245] He was met with booing and jeering from fans in response to his cancellation of a show slated for the end of the previous night’s bill due to torrential rain and risk of electrocution
[246][nb 34] Immediately following the festival, Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox travelled to London
Three days after the performance, Cox, who was suffering from severe paranoia after either taking LSD or being given it unknowingly, quit the tour and went to stay with his parents in Pennsylvania
[249] Within days of Hendrix’s arrival in England, he had spoken with Chas Chandler, Alan Douglas, and others about leaving his manager, Michael Jeffery
[250] On September 16, Hendrix performed in public for the last time during an informal jam at Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club in Soho with Eric Burdon and his latest band, War
[251] They began by playing a few of their recent hits, and after a brief intermission Hendrix joined them during “Mother Earth” and “Tobacco Road”
His performance was uncharacteristically subdued; he quietly played backing guitar, and refrained from the histrionics that people had come to expect from him
[252] He died less than 48 hours later
In July 1962, after Hendrix was discharged from the U
Army, he entered a small club in Clarksville, Tennessee
Drawn in by live music, he stopped for a drink and ended up spending most of the $400 he had saved
He explained: “I went in this jazz joint and had a drink
I liked it and I stayed
People tell me I get foolish, good-natured sometimes
Anyway, I guess I felt real benevolent that day
I must have been handing out bills to anyone that asked me
I came out of that place with sixteen dollars left
“[254] According to the authors Steven Roby and Brad Schreiber: “Alcohol would later be the scourge of his existence, driving him to fits of pique, even rare bursts of atypical, physical violence
Like most acid-heads, Jimi had visions and he wanted to create music to express what he saw
He would try to explain this to people, but it didn’t make sense because it was not linked to reality in any way
While Roby and Schreiber assert that Hendrix first used LSD when he met Linda Keith in late 1966, according to the authors Harry Shapiro and Caesar Glebbeek, the earliest that Hendrix is known to have ingested the drug was in June 1967, while attending the Monterey Pop Festival
[257] According to Hendrix biographer Charles Cross, the subject of drugs came up one evening in 1966 at Keith’s New York apartment; when one of Keith’s friends offered Hendrix acid, which is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide, Hendrix declined, asking instead for LSD, showing what Cross described as “his naivete and his complete inexperience with psychedelics”
[258] Before that, Hendrix had only sporadically used drugs, his experimentation was significantly limited to cannabis, hashish, amphetamines, and occasionally cocaine
[258] After 1967, he regularly smoked cannabis and hashish, and used LSD and amphetamines, particularly while touring
[259] According to Cross, by the time of his death in September 1970, “few stars were as closely associated with the drug culture as Jimi
Hendrix would often become angry and violent when he drank too much alcohol, or when he mixed alcohol with drugs
[261] His friend Herbie Worthington explained: “You wouldn’t expect somebody with that kind of love to be that violent 
He just couldn’t drink 
he simply turned into a bastard
“[262] According to journalist and friend Sharon Lawrence, Hendrix “admitted he could not handle hard liquor, which set off a bottled-up anger, a destructive fury he almost never displayed otherwise
In January 1968, the Experience travelled to Sweden for a one-week tour of Europe
During the early morning hours of the first day, Hendrix became engaged in a drunken brawl in the Hotel Opalen, in Gothenburg, smashing a plate-glass window and injuring his right hand, for which he received medical treatment
[262] The incident culminated in his arrest and release, pending a court appearance that resulted in a large fine
[264] After the 1969 burglary of a house Hendrix was renting in Benedict Canyon, California, and while he was under the influence of drugs and alcohol, he punched his friend Paul Caruso and accused him of the theft
He then chased Caruso away from the residence while throwing stones at him
[265] A few days later, one of Hendrix’s girlfriends, Carmen Borrero, required stitches after he hit her above her eye with a vodka bottle during a drunken, jealous rage
On May 3, 1969, while Hendrix was passing through customs at Toronto International Airport, authorities detained him after finding a small amount of what they suspected to be heroin and hashish in his luggage
[266] Four hours later, he was formally charged with drug possession and released on $10,000 bail
He was required to return on May 5 for an arraignment hearing
[267] The incident proved stressful for Hendrix, and it weighed heavily on his mind during the seven months that he awaited trial
In order for the Crown to prove possession they had to show that Hendrix knew the drugs were there
[268] During the jury trial, which took place in December, he testified that a fan had given him a vial of what he thought was legal medication, which he put in his bag without knowledge of the illegal substances contained therein
[269] He was acquitted of the charges
[270] Both Mitchell and Redding later revealed that everyone had been warned about a planned drug bust the day before flying to Toronto; both men also stated that they believed that the drugs had been planted in Hendrix’s bag
Although the details of Hendrix’s last day and death are widely disputed, he spent much of September 17, 1970, in London with Monika Dannemann, the only witness to his final hours
[272] Dannemann said that she prepared a meal for them at her apartment in the Samarkand Hotel, 22 Lansdowne Crescent, Notting Hill, sometime around 11 p
, when they shared a bottle of wine
[273] She drove Hendrix to the residence of an acquaintance at approximately 1:45 a
, where he remained for about an hour before she picked him up and drove them back to her flat at 3 a
[274] Dannemann said they talked until around 7 a
, when they went to sleep
She awoke around 11 a
, and found Hendrix breathing, but unconscious and unresponsive
She called for an ambulance at 11:18 a
; they arrived on the scene at 11:27 a
[275] Paramedics then transported Hendrix to St Mary Abbot’s Hospital where Dr
John Bannister pronounced him dead at 12:45 p
on September 18, 1970
To determine the cause of death, coroner Gavin Thurston ordered a post-mortem examination on Hendrix’s body, which was performed on September 21 by Professor Robert Donald Teare, a forensic pathologist
[277] Thurston completed the inquest on September 28, and concluded that Hendrix aspirated his own vomit and died of asphyxia while intoxicated with barbiturates
[278] Citing “insufficient evidence of the circumstances”, he declared an open verdict
[279] Dannemann later revealed that Hendrix had taken nine of her prescribed Vesparax sleeping tablets, 18 times the recommended dosage
After Hendrix’s body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley,[281] it was flown to Seattle, Washington, on September 29, 1970
[282] After a service at Dunlop Baptist Church on October 1, he was interred at Greenwood Cemetery in Renton, Washington, the location of his mother’s gravesite
[283] Hendrix’s family and friends traveled in twenty-four limousines and more than two hundred people attended the funeral, including several notable musicians such as original Experience members Mitch Mitchell and Noel Redding, as well as Miles Davis, John Hammond, and Johnny Winter
[284][nb 35]
By 1967, as Hendrix was gaining in popularity, many of his pre-Experience recordings were marketed to an unsuspecting public as Jimi Hendrix albums, sometimes with misleading later images of Hendrix
[286] The recordings, which came under the control of producer Ed Chalpin of PPX, with whom Hendrix had signed a recording contract in 1965, were often re-mixed between their repeated reissues, and licensed to record companies such as Decca and Capitol
[287] Hendrix publicly denounced the releases, describing them as “malicious” and “greatly inferior”, stating: “At PPX, we spent on average about one hour recording a song
Today I spend at least twelve hours on each song
“[288] These unauthorized releases have long constituted a substantial part of his recording catalogue, amounting to hundreds of albums
Some of Hendrix’s unfinished material was released as the 1971 title The Cry of Love
[232] Although the album reached number three in the U
and number two in the UK, producers Mitchell and Kramer later complained that they were unable to make use of all the available songs because some tracks were used for 1971’s Rainbow Bridge; still others were issued on 1972’s War Heroes
[290] Material from The Cry of Love was re-released in 1997 as First Rays of the New Rising Sun, along with the other tracks that Mitchell and Kramer had wanted to include
[291][nb 36]
In 1993, MCA Records delayed a multimillion-dollar sale of Hendrix’s publishing copyrights because Al Hendrix was unhappy about the arrangement
[293] He acknowledged that he had sold distribution rights to a foreign corporation in 1974, but stated that it did not include copyrights and argued that he had retained veto power of the sale of the catalogue
[293] Under a settlement reached in July 1995, Al Hendrix prevailed in his legal battle and regained control of his son’s song and image rights
[294] He subsequently licensed the recordings to MCA through the family-run company Experience Hendrix LLC, formed in 1995
[295] In August 2009, Experience Hendrix announced that it had entered a new licensing agreement with Sony Music Entertainment’s Legacy Recordings division which would take effect in 2010
[296] Legacy and Experience Hendrix launched the 2010 Jimi Hendrix Catalog Project, starting with the release of Valleys of Neptune in March of that year
[297] In the months before his death, Hendrix recorded demos for a concept album tentatively titled Black Gold, which are now in the possession of Experience Hendrix LLC; as of 2013 no official release date has been announced
[298][nb 37]
Hendrix played a variety of guitars throughout his career, but the instrument that became most associated with him was the Fender Stratocaster
[300] He acquired his first Stratocaster in 1966, when a girlfriend loaned him enough money to purchase a used one that had been built around 1964
[301] He thereafter used the model prevalently during performances and recordings
[302] In 1967, he described the instrument as “the best all-around guitar for the stuff we’re doing”; he praised its “bright treble and deep bass sounds”
With few exceptions, Hendrix played right-handed guitars that were turned upside down and restrung for left-hand playing
[304] This had an important effect on the sound of his guitar; because of the slant of the bridge pickup, his lowest string had a brighter sound while his highest string had a darker sound, which was the opposite of the Stratocaster’s intended design
[305] In addition to Stratocasters, Hendrix also used Fender Jazzmasters, Duosonics, two different Gibson Flying Vs, a Gibson Les Paul, three Gibson SGs, a Gretsch Corvette, and a Fender Jaguar
[306] He used a white Gibson SG Custom for his performances on The Dick Cavett Show in September 1969, and a black Gibson Flying V during the Isle of Wight festival in 1970
[307][nb 38]
During 1965 and 1966, while Hendrix was playing back-up for soul and R&B acts in the U
, he used an 85-watt Fender Twin Reverb amplifier
[309] When Chandler brought Hendrix to England in October 1966, he supplied him with 30-watt Burns amps, which Hendrix thought were too small for his needs
[310][nb 39] After an early London gig when he was unable to use his preferred Fender Twin, he asked about the Marshall amps that he had noticed other groups using
[310] Years earlier, Mitch Mitchell had taken drum lessons from the amp builder, Jim Marshall, and he introduced Hendrix to Marshall
[311] At their initial meeting, Hendrix bought four speaker cabinets and three 100-watt Super Lead amplifiers; he would grow accustomed to using all three in unison
[310] The equipment arrived on October 11, 1966, and the Experience used the new gear during their first tour
[310] Marshall amps were well-suited for Hendrix’s needs, and they were paramount in the evolution of his heavily overdriven sound, enabling him to master the use of feedback as a musical effect, creating what author Paul Trynka described as a “definitive vocabulary for rock guitar”
[312] Hendrix usually turned all of the amplifier’s control knobs to the maximum level, which became known as the Hendrix setting
[313] During the four years prior to his death, he purchased between 50 and 100 Marshall amplifiers
[314] Jim Marshall said that he was “the greatest ambassador” his company ever had
One of Hendrix’s signature effects was the wah-wah pedal, which he first heard used with an electric guitar in Cream’s “Tales of Brave Ulysses”, released in May 1967
[317] In July of that year, while playing gigs at the Scene club in New York City, Hendrix met Frank Zappa, whose band, the Mothers of Invention were performing at the adjacent Garrick Theater
Hendrix was fascinated by Zappa’s application of the pedal, and he experimented with one later that evening
[318][nb 40] He used a wah pedal during the opening to “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)”, creating one of the best-known wah-wah riffs of the classic rock era
[320] He can also be heard using the effect on “Up from the Skies”, “Little Miss Lover”, and “Still Raining, Still Dreaming”
Hendrix consistently used a Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face and a Vox wah pedal during recording sessions and live performances, but he also experimented with other guitar effects
[321] He enjoyed a fruitful long-term collaboration with electronics enthusiast Roger Mayer, whom he once called “the secret” of his sound
[322] Mayer introduced him to the Octavia, an octave doubling effect pedal, in December 1966, and he first recorded with the effect during the guitar solo to “Purple Haze”
Hendrix also utilized the Uni-Vibe, which was designed to simulate the modulation effects of a rotating Leslie speaker by providing a rich phasing sound that could be manipulated with a speed control pedal
He can be heard using the effect during his performance at Woodstock and on the Band of Gypsys track “Machine Gun”, which prominently features the Uni-vibe along with an Octavia and a Fuzz Face
[324] His signal flow for live performance involved first plugging his guitar into a wah-wah pedal, then connecting the wah-wah pedal to a Fuzz Face, which was then linked to a Uni-Vibe, before connecting to a Marshall amplifier
As an adolescent during the 1950s, Hendrix became interested in rock and roll artists such as Elvis Presley, Little Richard, and Chuck Berry
[326] In 1968, he told Guitar Player magazine that electric blues artists Muddy Waters, Elmore James, and B
King inspired him during the beginning of his career; he also cited Eddie Cochran as an early influence
[327] Of Muddy Waters, the first electric guitarist of which Hendrix became aware, he said: “I heard one of his records when I was a little boy and it scared me to death because I heard all of these sounds
“[328] In 1970, he told Rolling Stone that he was a fan of western swing artist Bob Wills and while he lived in Nashville, the television show the Grand Ole Opry
I don’t happen to know much about jazz
I know that most of those cats are playing nothing but blues, though—I know that much
Cox stated that during their time serving in the U
military he and Hendrix primarily listened to southern blues artists such as Jimmy Reed and Albert King
According to Cox, “King was a very, very powerful influence”
[327] Howlin’ Wolf also inspired Hendrix, who performed Wolf’s “Killing Floor” as the opening song of his U
debut at the Monterey Pop Festival
[331] The influence of soul artist Curtis Mayfield can be heard in Hendrix’s guitar playing, and the influence of Bob Dylan can be heard in Hendrix’s songwriting; he was known to play Dylan’s records repeatedly, particularly Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde
He changed everything
What don’t we owe Jimi Hendrix? For his monumental rebooting of guitar culture “standards of tone”, technique, gear, signal processing, rhythm playing, soloing, stage presence, chord voicings, charisma, fashion, and composition? 
He is guitar hero number one
The Experience’s Rock and Roll Hall of Fame biography states: “Jimi Hendrix was arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music
[1] Hendrix expanded the range and vocabulary of the electric guitar into areas no musician had ever ventured before
His boundless drive, technical ability and creative application of such effects as wah-wah and distortion forever transformed the sound of rock and roll
“[334] Musicologist Andy Aledort described Hendrix as “one of the most creative” and “influential musicians that has ever lived”
[335] Music journalist Chuck Philips wrote: “In a field almost exclusively populated by white musicians, Hendrix has served as a role model for a cadre of young black rockers
His achievement was to reclaim title to a musical form pioneered by black innovators like Little Richard and Chuck Berry in the 1950s
Hendrix favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain
[110] He was instrumental in developing the previously undesirable technique of guitar amplifier feedback, and helped to popularize use of the wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock
[337] He rejected the standard barre chord fretting technique used by most guitarists in favor of fretting the low 6th string root notes with his thumb
[338] He applied this technique during the beginning bars of “Little Wing”, which allowed him to sustain the root note of chords while also playing melody
This method has been described as piano style, with the thumb playing what a pianist’s left hand would play and the other fingers playing melody as a right hand
[339] Having spent several years fronting a trio, he developed an ability to play rhythm chords and lead lines together, giving the audio impression that more than one guitarist was performing
[340][nb 41] He was the first artist to incorporate stereophonic phasing effects in rock music recordings
[343] Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: “Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source
Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began
“[2][nb 42] Aledort wrote: “In rock guitar, there are but two eras — before Hendrix and after Hendrix
While creating his unique musical voice and guitar style, Hendrix synthesized diverse genres, including blues, R&B, soul, British rock, American folk music, 1950s rock and roll, and jazz
[345] Musicologist David Moskowitz emphasized the importance of blues music in Hendrix’s playing style, and according to authors Steven Roby and Brad Schreiber, “[He] explored the outer reaches of psychedelic rock”
[346] His influence is evident in a variety of popular music formats, and he has contributed significantly to the development of hard rock, heavy metal, funk, post-punk, and hip hop music
[347] His lasting influence on modern guitar players is difficult to overstate; his techniques and delivery have been abundantly imitated by others
[348] Despite his hectic touring schedule and notorious perfectionism, he was a prolific recording artist who left behind numerous unreleased recordings
[349] More than 40 years after his death, Hendrix remains as popular as ever, with annual album sales exceeding that of any year during his lifetime
Hendrix has influenced numerous funk and funk rock artists, including Prince, George Clinton, John Frusciante, formerly of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Eddie Hazel of Funkadelic, and Ernie Isley of the Isley Brothers
[351] Hendrix’s influence also extends to many hip hop artists, including De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Digital Underground, Beastie Boys, and Run–D
[352] Miles Davis was deeply impressed by Hendrix, and he compared Hendrix’s improvisational abilities with those of saxophonist John Coltrane
[353][nb 43] Hendrix also influenced industrial artist Marilyn Manson,[355] blues legend Stevie Ray Vaughan, Metallica’s Kirk Hammett, instrumental rock guitarist Joe Satriani, and heavy metal virtuoso Yngwie Malmsteen, who said: “[Hendrix] created modern electric playing, without question 
He was the first
He started it all
The rest is history
Hendrix received several prestigious rock music awards during his lifetime and posthumously
In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year
[357] In 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year
[357] Also in 1968, the City of Seattle gave him the Keys to the City
[358] Disc & Music Echo newspaper honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player magazine named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year
Rolling Stone ranked his three non-posthumous studio albums, Are You Experienced (1967), Axis: Bold as Love (1967), and Electric Ladyland (1968) among the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time
[360] They ranked Hendrix number one on their list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time, and number six on their list of the 100 greatest artists of all time
[361] Guitar World’s readers voted six of Hendrix’s solos among the top 100 Greatest Guitar Solos of All Time: “Purple Haze” (70), “The Star-Spangled Banner” (52; from Live at Woodstock), “Machine Gun” (32; from Band of Gypsys), “Little Wing” (18), “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)” (11), and “All Along the Watchtower” (5)
[362] Rolling Stone placed seven of his recordings in their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: “Purple Haze” (17), “All Along the Watchtower” (47) “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)” (102), “Foxy Lady” (153), “Hey Joe” (201), “Little Wing” (366), and “The Wind Cries Mary” (379)
[363] They also included three of Hendrix’s songs in their list of the 100 Greatest Guitar Songs of All Time: “Purple Haze” (2), “Voodoo Child” (12), and “Machine Gun” (49)
A star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame was dedicated to Hendrix on November 14, 1991, at 6627 Hollywood Boulevard
[365] The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005
[1][366] In 1999, readers of Rolling Stone and Guitar World ranked Hendrix among the most important musicians of the 20th century
[367] In 2005, his debut album, Are You Experienced, was one of 50 recordings added that year to the United States National Recording Registry in the Library of Congress, “[to] be preserved for all time 
[as] part of the nation’s audio legacy”
The blue plaque identifying his former residence at 23 Brook Street, London (next door to the former residence of George Frideric Handel) was the first one issued by English Heritage to commemorate a pop star
[369] A memorial statue of Hendrix playing a Stratocaster stands near the corner of Broadway and Pine Streets in Seattle
In May 2006, the city renamed a park near its Central District, Jimi Hendrix Park, in his honor
[370] In 2012, an official historic marker was erected on the site of the July 1970 Second Atlanta International Pop Festival near Byron, Georgia
The marker text reads, in part: “Over thirty musical acts performed, including rock icon Jimi Hendrix playing to the largest American audience of his career
Hendrix’s music has received a number of Hall of Fame Grammy awards, starting with a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992, followed by two Grammys in 1999 for his albums Are You Experienced and Electric Ladyland; Axis: Bold as Love received a Grammy in 2006
[372][373] In 2000, he received a Hall of Fame Grammy award for his original composition, “Purple Haze”, and in 2001 for his recording of Dylan’s “All Along the Watchtower”
Hendrix’s rendition of “The Star-Spangled Banner” was honored with a Grammy in 2009
The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honoring Hendrix in 2014

How to quit smoking fast and easy

Smoking cessation (colloquially quitting smoking) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking
Tobacco contains nicotine, which is addictive,[1] making the process of quitting often very prolonged and difficult
Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide, and quitting smoking significantly reduces the risk of dying from tobacco-related diseases such as heart disease and lung cancer
[2] Seventy percent of smokers would like to quit smoking, and 50 percent report attempting to quit within the past year
[3] Many different strategies can be used for smoking cessation, including quitting without assistance (“cold turkey” or cut down then quit), medications such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or varenicline, and behavioral counseling
The majority of smokers who try to quit do so without assistance, though only 3 to 6% of quit attempts without assistance are successful
[4] Use of medications and behavioral counseling both increase success rates, and a combination of both medication and behavioral interventions has been shown to be even more effective
Because nicotine is addictive, quitting smoking leads to symptoms of nicotine withdrawal such as craving, anxiety and irritability, depression, and weight gain
[6]:2298 Professional smoking cessation support methods generally endeavor to address both nicotine addiction and nicotine withdrawal symptoms
Major reviews of the scientific literature on smoking cessation include:
As it is common for ex-smokers to have made a number of attempts (often using different approaches on each occasion) to stop smoking before achieving long-term abstinence, identifying which approach or technique is eventually most successful is difficult; it has been estimated, for example, that “only about 4% to 7% of people are able to quit smoking on any given attempt without medicines or other help”
[13] However, in analysing a 1986 U
survey, Fiore et al
(1990) found that 95% of former smokers who had been abstinent for 1–10 years had made an unassisted last quit attempt
[14] The most frequent unassisted methods were “cold turkey” and “gradually decreased number” of cigarettes
[14] A 1995 meta-analysis estimated that the quit rate from unaided methods was 7
3% after an average of 10 months of follow-up
“Cold turkey” is a colloquial term indicating abrupt withdrawal from an addictive drug, and in this context indicates sudden and complete cessation of all nicotine use
In three studies, it was the quitting method cited by 76%,[16] 85%,[14] or 88%[17] of long-term successful quitters
In a large British study of ex-smokers in the 1980s, before the advent of pharmacotherapy, 53% of the ex-smokers said that it was “not at all difficult” to stop, 27% said it was “fairly difficult”, and the remaining 20% found it very difficult
The American Cancer Society estimates that “between about 25% and 33% of smokers who use medicines can stay smoke-free for over 6 months
“[13] Single medications include:
The 2008 US Guideline specifies that three combinations of medications are effective:[8]:118–120
Studies indicate a 80% success rate from consuming psychedelic mushrooms
“Quitting smoking isn’t a simple biological reaction to psilocybin, as with other medications that directly affect nicotine receptors,” Johnson says
“When administered after careful preparation and in a therapeutic context, psilocybin can lead to deep reflection about one’s life and spark motivation to change
Gradual reduction involves slowly reducing one’s daily intake of nicotine
This can theoretically be accomplished through repeated changes to cigarettes with lower levels of nicotine, by gradually reducing the number of cigarettes smoked each day, or by smoking only a fraction of a cigarette on each occasion
A 2009 systematic review by researchers at the University of Birmingham found that gradual nicotine replacement therapy could be effective in smoking cessation
[28][29] There is no significant difference in quit rates between smokers who quit by gradual reduction or abrupt cessation as measured by abstinence from smoking of at least six months from the quit day, suggesting that people who want to quit can choose between these two methods
Most smoking cessation resources such as the CDC[31] and Mayo Clinic[32] encourage smokers to create a quit plan, including setting a quit date, which helps them anticipate and plan ahead for smoking challenges
A quit plan can improve a smoker’s chance of a successful quit[33][34][35] as can as setting Monday as the quit date, given that research has shown that Monday more than any other day is when smokers are seeking information online to quit smoking[36] and calling state quit lines
A Cochrane review found evidence that community interventions using “multiple channels to provide reinforcement, support and norms for not smoking” had an effect on smoking cessation outcomes among adults
[38] Specific methods used in the community to encourage smoking cessation among adults include:
A 2005 Cochrane review found that self-help materials may produce only a small increase in quit rates
[60] In the 2008 Guideline, “the effect of self-help was weak,” and the number of types of self-help did not produce higher abstinence rates
[8]:89–91 Nevertheless, self-help modalities for smoking cessation include:
Various methods exist which allow a smoker to see the impact of their tobacco use, and the immediate effects of quitting
Using biochemical feedback methods can allow tobacco-users to be identified and assessed, and the use of monitoring throughout an effort to quit can increase motivation to quit
While both measures offer high sensitivity and specificity, they differ in usage method and cost
As an example, breath CO monitoring is non-invasive, while cotinine testing relies on a bodily fluid
These two methods can be used either alone or together, for example, in a situation where abstinence verification needs additional confirmation
One 2008 Cochrane review concluded that “incentives and competitions have not been shown to enhance long-term cessation rates
“[80] A different 2008 Cochrane review found that one type of competition, “Quit and Win,” did increase quit rates among participants
Interventions delivered via healthcare providers and healthcare systems have been shown to improve smoking cessation among people who visit those providers
Methods used with children and adolescents include:
A Cochrane review, mainly of studies combining motivational enhancement and psychological support, concluded that “complex approaches” for smoking cessation among young people show promise
[108] The 2008 US Guideline recommends counselling-style support for adolescent smokers on the basis of a meta-analysis of seven studies
[8]:159–161 Neither the Cochrane review nor the 2008 Guideline recommends medications for adolescents who smoke
Smoking during pregnancy can cause adverse health effects in both the woman and the fetus
The 2008 US Guideline determined that “person-to-person psychosocial interventions” (typically including “intensive counseling”) increased abstinence rates in pregnant women who smoke to 13
3%, compared with 7
6% in usual care
[8]:165–167 Mothers who smoke during pregnancy have a greater tendency towards premature births
Their babies are often underdeveloped, have smaller organs, and weigh much less compared with the normal baby
In addition, these babies have worse immune systems, making them more susceptible to many diseases in early childhood, such as middle ear inflammations and asthmatic bronchitis which can bring about a lot of agony and suffering
As well, there is a high chance that they will become smokers themselves when grown up
It is a widely spread myth that a female smoker can cause harm to her fetus by quitting immediately upon discovering that she is with child
Though this idea does seem to follow logic, it is not based on any medical study or fact
A 2008 Cochrane review of smoking cessation activities in work-places concluded that “interventions directed towards individual smokers increase the likelihood of quitting smoking
“[111] A 2010 systematic review determined that worksite incentives and competitions needed to be combined with additional interventions to produce significant increases in smoking cessation rates
Smokers who are hospitalised may be particularly motivated to quit
[8]:149–150 A 2007 Cochrane review found that interventions beginning during a hospital stay and continuing for one month or more after discharge were effective in producing abstinence
Comparison of success rates across interventions can be difficult because of different definitions of “success” across studies
[13] Robert West and Saul Shiffman, authorities in this field recognised by government health departments in a number of countries,[113]:73,76,80 have concluded that, used together, “behavioural support” and “medication” can quadruple the chances that a quit attempt will be successful
A 2008 systematic review in the European Journal of Cancer Prevention found that group behavioural therapy was the most effective intervention strategy for smoking cessation, followed by bupropion, intensive physician advice, nicotine replacement therapy, individual counselling, telephone counselling, nursing interventions, and tailored self-help interventions; the study did not discuss varenicline
Quitting can be harder for individuals with dark pigmented skin compared to individuals with pale skin since nicotine has an affinity for melanin-containing tissues
Studies suggest this can cause the phenomenon of increased nicotine dependence and lower smoking cessation rate in darker pigmented individuals
There is an important social component to smoking
A 2008 study of a densely interconnected network of over 12,000 individuals found that smoking cessation by any given individual reduced the chances of others around them lighting up by the following amounts: a spouse by 67%, a sibling by 25%, a friend by 36%, and a coworker by 34%
[117] Nevertheless, a Cochrane review determined that interventions to increase social support for a smoker’s cessation attempt did not increase long-term quit rates
Smokers who are trying to quit are faced with social influences that may persuade them to conform and continue smoking
Cravings are easier to detain when one’s environment does not provoke the habit
If a person who stopped smoking has close relationships with active smokers they are often put into situations that make the urge to conform more tempting
However, in a small group with at least one other not smoking, the likelihood of conformity decreases
The social influence to smoke cigarettes has been proven to rely on simple variables
One researched variable depends on whether the influence is from a friend or non-friend
[119] the research shows that individuals are 77% more likely to conform to non-friends, while close friendships decrease conformity
Therefore, if an acquaintance offers a cigarette as a polite gesture, the person who has stopped smoking will be more likely to break his commitment than if a friend had offered
Expectations and attitude are significant factors
A self-perpetuating cycle occurs when a person feels bad for smoking yet smokes to alleviate feeling bad
Breaking that cycle can be a key in changing the sabotaging attitude
Smokers with major depressive disorder may be less successful at quitting smoking than non-depressed smokers
Relapse (resuming smoking after quitting) has been related to psychological issues such as low self-efficacy[121] or non-optimal coping responses;[122] however, psychological approaches to prevent relapse have not been proven to be successful
[123] In contrast, varenicline may help some relapsed smokers
In a 2007 review of the effects of abstinence from tobacco, Hughes concluded that “anger, anxiety, depression, difficulty concentrating, impatience, insomnia, and restlessness are valid withdrawal symptoms that peak within the first week and last 2–4 weeks
“[125] In contrast, “constipation, cough, dizziness, increased dreaming, and mouth ulcers” may or may not be symptoms of withdrawal, while drowsiness, fatigue, and certain physical symptoms (“dry mouth, flu symptoms, headaches, heart racing, skin rash, sweating, tremor”) were not symptoms of withdrawal
Giving up smoking is associated with an average weight gain of 4–5 kilograms (8
0 lb) after 12 months, most of which occurs within the first three months of quitting
The possible causes of the weight gain include:
The 2008 Guideline suggests that sustained-release bupropion, nicotine gum, and nicotine lozenge be used “to delay weight gain after quitting
“[8]:173–176 However, a 2012 Cochrane review concluded that “The data are not sufficient to make strong clinical recommendations for effective programmes” for preventing weight gain
Like other physically addictive drugs, nicotine addiction causes a down-regulation of the production of dopamine and other stimulatory neurotransmitters as the brain attempts to compensate for the artificial stimulation caused by smoking
Therefore, when people stop smoking, depressive symptoms such as suicidal tendencies or actual depression may result
[120][131] This side effect of smoking cessation may be particularly common in women, as depression is more common among women than among men
A recent study by The British Journal of Psychiatry has found that smokers who successfully quit feel less anxious afterwards with the effect being greater among those who had mood and anxiety disorders than those that smoked for pleasure
Many of tobacco’s detrimental health effects can be reduced or largely removed through smoking cessation
The health benefits over time of stopping smoking include:[134]
The British Doctors Study showed that those who stopped smoking before they reached 30 years of age lived almost as long as those who never smoked
[136] Stopping in one’s sixties can still add three years of healthy life
[136] A randomized trial from the U
and Canada showed that a smoking cessation program lasting 10 weeks decreased mortality from all causes over 14 years later
Another published study, “Smoking Cessation Reduces Postoperative Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” examined six randomized trials and 15 observational studies to look at the effects of preoperative smoking cessation on postoperative complications
The findings were: 1) taken together, the studies demonstrated decreased likelihood of postoperative complications in patients who ceased smoking prior to surgery; 2) overall, each week of cessation prior to surgery increased the magnitude of the effect by 19%
A significant positive effect was noted in trials where smoking cessation occurred at least four weeks prior to surgery; 3) For the six randomized trials, they demonstrated on average a relative risk reduction of 41% for postoperative complications
Cost-effectiveness analyses of smoking cessation activities have shown that they increase quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at costs comparable with other types of interventions to treat and prevent disease
[8]:134–137 Studies of the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation include:
The frequency of smoking cessation among smokers varies across countries
Smoking cessation increased in Spain between 1965 and 2000,[142] in Scotland between 1998 and 2007,[143] and in Italy after 2000
[144] In contrast, in the U
the cessation rate was “stable (or varied little)” between 1998 and 2008,[145] and in China smoking cessation rates declined between 1998 and 2003
Nevertheless, in a growing number of countries there are now more ex-smokers than smokers
[18] For example, in the U
as of 2010, there were 47 million ex-smokers and 46 million smokers

Affordable Animated Sales Video

The Sega Saturn (セガサターン, Sega Satān?) is a 32-bit fifth-generation home video game console that was developed by Sega and released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America, and July 8, 1995 in Europe as the successor to the successful Sega Genesis
The Saturn has a dual-CPU architecture and eight processors
Its games are in CD-ROM format, and its game library contains several arcade ports as well as original titles
Development of the Saturn began in 1992, the same year Sega’s groundbreaking 3D Model 1 arcade hardware debuted
Designed around a new CPU from Japanese electronics company Hitachi, another video display processor was incorporated into the system’s design in early 1994 to better compete with Sony’s forthcoming PlayStation
The Saturn was initially successful in Japan, but failed to sell in large numbers in the United States after its surprise May 1995 launch, four months before its scheduled release date
After the debut of the Nintendo 64 in late 1996, the Saturn rapidly lost market share in the U
, where it was discontinued in 1998
Having sold 9
26 million units worldwide, the Saturn is considered a commercial failure
The failure of Sega’s development teams to release a game in the Sonic the Hedgehog series, known in development as Sonic X-treme, has been considered a factor in the console’s poor performance
Although the system is remembered for several well-regarded games, including Nights into Dreams
, the Panzer Dragoon series, and the Virtua Fighter series, the Saturn’s reputation is mixed due to its complex hardware design and limited third-party support
Sega’s management has been criticized for its decision-making during the system’s development and cancellation
Released in 1988, the Sega Genesis (known as the Sega Mega Drive in Europe and Japan) was Sega’s entry into the fourth generation of video game consoles
[2] In mid-1990, Sega CEO Hayao Nakayama hired Tom Kalinske as president and CEO of Sega of America
Kalinske developed a four-point plan for sales of the Genesis: lower the price of the console, create a U
-based team to develop games targeted at the American market, continue aggressive advertising campaigns, and sell Sonic the Hedgehog with the console
[3] The Japanese board of directors initially disapproved of the plan,[4] but all four points were approved by Nakayama, who told Kalinske, “I hired you to make the decisions for Europe and the Americas, so go ahead and do it
“[2] Magazines praised Sonic as one of the greatest games yet made, and Sega’s console finally took off as customers who had been waiting for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) decided to purchase a Genesis instead
[5] However, the release of a CD-based add-on for the Genesis, the Sega CD (known as Mega-CD outside of North America), had been commercially disappointing
Sega also experienced success with arcade games
In 1992 and 1993, the company’s new Sega Model 1 arcade system board showcased Sega AM2’s Virtua Racing and Virtua Fighter (the first 3D fighting game), which played a crucial role in popularizing 3D polygonal graphics
[8][9][10] In particular, Virtua Fighter garnered praise for its simple three-button control scheme, with the game’s strategy coming from the intuitively observed differences between characters that felt and acted differently rather than the more ornate combos of two-dimensional competitors
Despite its crude visuals—with characters composed of fewer than 1,200 polygons—Virtua Fighter’s fluid animation and relatively realistic depiction of distinct fighting styles gave its combatants a lifelike presence considered impossible to replicate with sprites
[11][12][13] The Model 1 was an expensive system board, and bringing home releases of its games to the Genesis required more than its hardware could handle
Several alternatives helped to bring Sega’s newest arcade games to the console, such as the Sega Virtua Processor chip used for Virtua Racing, and eventually the Sega 32X add-on
Development of the Saturn was supervised by Hideki Sato, Sega’s director and deputy general manager of research and development
[15] According to Sega project manager Hideki Okamura, the Saturn project started over two years before the system was showcased at the Tokyo Toy Show in June 1994
The name “Saturn” was initially the system’s codename during development in Japan, but was eventually chosen as the official product name
[16] In 1993, Sega and Japanese electronics company Hitachi formed a joint venture to develop a new CPU for the Saturn, which resulted in the creation of the “SuperH RISC Engine” (or SH-2) later that year
[17][18] The Saturn was ultimately designed around a dual-SH2 configuration
According to Kazuhiro Hamada, Sega’s section chief for Saturn development during the system’s conception, “the SH-2 was chosen for reasons of cost and efficiency
The chip has a calculation system similar to a DSP [digital signal processor], but we realized that a single CPU would not be enough to calculate a 3D world
“[17][19] Although the Saturn’s design was largely finished before the end of 1993, reports in early 1994 of the technical capabilities of Sony’s upcoming PlayStation console prompted Sega to include another video display processor (VDP) to improve the system’s 2D performance and texture-mapping
[17][19][20] CD-ROM-based and cartridge-only versions of the Saturn hardware were considered for simultaneous release at one point during the system’s development, but this idea was discarded due to concerns over the lower quality and higher price of cartridge-based games
According to Kalinske, Sega of America “fought against the architecture of Saturn for quite some time”
[21] Seeking an alternative graphics chip for the Saturn, Kalinske attempted to broker a deal with Silicon Graphics, but Sega of Japan rejected the proposal
[22][23][24] Silicon Graphics subsequently collaborated with Nintendo on the Nintendo 64
[22][25] Kalinske, Sony Electronic Publishing’s Olaf Olafsson, and Sony America’s Micky Schulhof had previously discussed development of a joint “Sega/Sony hardware system”, which never came to fruition due to Sega’s desire to create hardware that could accommodate both 2D and 3D visuals and Sony’s competing notion of focusing entirely on 3D technology
[23][26][27] Publicly, Kalinske defended the Saturn’s design: “Our people feel that they need the multiprocessing to be able to bring to the home what we’re doing next year in the arcades
In 1993, Sega restructured its internal studios in preparation for the Saturn’s launch
To ensure high-quality 3D games would be available early in the Saturn’s life, and to create a more energetic working environment, developers from Sega’s arcade division were instructed to create console games
New teams, such as Panzer Dragoon developer Team Andromeda, were formed during this time
In January 1994, Sega began to develop an add-on for the Genesis, the Sega 32X, which would serve as a less-expensive entry into the 32-bit era
The decision to create the add-on was made by Nakayama and widely supported by Sega of America employees
[6] According to former Sega of America producer Scot Bayless, Nakayama was worried that the Saturn would not be available until after 1994 and that the recently released Atari Jaguar would reduce Sega’s hardware sales
As a result, Nakayama ordered his engineers to have the system ready for launch by the end of the year
[6] The 32X would not be compatible with the Saturn, but Sega executive Richard Brudvik-Lindner pointed out that the 32X would play Genesis titles, and had the same system architecture as the Saturn
[30] This was justified by Sega’s statement that both platforms would run at the same time, and that the 32X would be aimed at players who could not afford the more expensive Saturn
[6][31] According to Sega of America research and development head Joe Miller, the 32X served a role in assisting development teams to familiarize themselves with the dual SH-2 architecture also used in the Saturn
[32] Because both machines shared many of the same parts and were preparing to launch around the same time, tensions emerged between Sega of America and Sega of Japan when the Saturn was given priority
Sega released the Saturn in Japan on November 22, 1994, at a price of JP¥44,800
[33] Virtua Fighter, a nearly indistinguishable port of the popular arcade game, sold at a nearly one-to-one ratio with the Saturn hardware at launch and was crucial to the system’s early success in Japan
[12][13][34] Along with Virtua Fighter, Sega had wanted the launch to include both Clockwork Knight and Panzer Dragoon, but the latter was not ready in time
[29] Aside from Virtua Fighter, the only first-party title available on launch day was Wan Chai Connection
[35] Fueled by the popularity of Virtua Fighter, Sega’s initial shipment of 200,000 Saturn units sold out on the first day
[34][36][37] Sega waited until the December 3 launch of the PlayStation to ship more units; when both were sold side-by-side, the Saturn proved to be the more popular system
[34][38] Meanwhile, the 32X was released on November 21, 1994 in North America, December 3, 1994 in Japan, and January 1995 in PAL territories, and was sold at less than half of the Saturn’s launch price
[39][40] After the holiday season, however, interest in the 32X rapidly declined
[6][31] 500,000 Saturn units were sold in Japan by the end of 1995 (compared to 300,000 PlayStation units),[41] and sales exceeded 1 million within the following six months
[42] There were conflicting reports that the PlayStation enjoyed a higher sell-through rate, and the system gradually began to overtake the Saturn in sales during 1995
[43] Sony attracted many third-party developers to the PlayStation with a liberal $10 licensing fee, excellent development tools, and the introduction of a revolutionary 7- to 10-day order system that allowed publishers to meet demand more efficiently than the 10- to 12-week lead times for cartridges that had previously been standard in the Japanese video game industry
In March 1995, Sega of America CEO Tom Kalinske announced that the Saturn would be released in the U
on “Saturnday” (Saturday) September 2, 1995
[46][47] However, Sega of Japan mandated an early launch to give the Saturn an advantage over the PlayStation
[48] Therefore, at the first Electronic Entertainment Expo (E3) in Los Angeles on May 11, 1995, Kalinske gave a keynote presentation for the upcoming Saturn in which he revealed the release price at US$399 ($449 including a bundled copy of Virtua Fighter[49]), and described the features of the console
Kalinske also revealed that, due to “high consumer demand”,[49] Sega had already shipped 30,000 Saturns to Toys “R” Us, Babbage’s, Electronics Boutique, and Software Etc
for immediate release
[46] This announcement upset retailers who were not informed of the surprise release, including Best Buy and Walmart;[23][50][51] KB Toys responded by dropping Sega from its lineup
[46] Sony subsequently unveiled the retail price for the PlayStation: Sony Computer Entertainment America president Steve Race took the stage, said “$299”, and then walked away to applause
[23][52][53] The Saturn’s release in Europe also came before the previously announced North American date, on July 8, 1995, at a price of GB₤399
[14] European retailers and press did not have time to promote the system or its games, leading to poor sales
[54] After its European launch on September 29, by early November 1995 the PlayStation had already outsold the Saturn by a factor of three in the United Kingdom, where it was reported that Sony allocated ₤20 million to market the system during the holiday season compared to Sega’s ₤4 million
The Saturn’s U
launch was accompanied by a reported $50 million advertising campaign that included coverage in publications such as Wired and Playboy
[42][57][58] Because of the early launch, the Saturn had only six games (all published by Sega) available to start as most third-party games were slated to be released around the original launch date
[59] Virtua Fighter’s relative lack of popularity in the West, combined with a release schedule of only two games between the surprise launch and September 1995, prevented Sega from capitalizing on the Saturn’s early timing
[21][36][60] Within two days of its September 9, 1995 launch in North America, the PlayStation (backed by a large marketing campaign[44][61]) sold more units than the Saturn had in the five months following its surprise launch, with almost all of the initial shipment of 100,000 units being presold in advance, and the rest selling-out across the U
A high-quality port of the Namco arcade game Ridge Racer contributed to the PlayStation’s early success,[38][63] and garnered favorable comparisons in the media to the Saturn version of Sega’s Daytona USA, which was considered inferior to its arcade counterpart
[64][65] Namco, a longtime arcade competitor with Sega,[9][66] also unveiled the Namco System 11 arcade board, which was based on raw PlayStation hardware
[67] Although the System 11 was technically inferior to Sega’s Model 2 arcade board, its lower price made it an attractive prospect for smaller arcades
[67][68] Following a 1994 acquisition of Sega developers, Namco released Tekken for the System 11 and PlayStation
Directed by former Virtua Fighter designer Seiichi Ishii, Tekken was intended to be a fundamentally similar title, with the addition of detailed textures and twice the frame rate
[69][70][71] Tekken surpassed Virtua Fighter in popularity due to its superior graphics and nearly arcade-perfect console port, becoming the first million-selling PlayStation title
[68][72][73] On October 2, 1995 Sega announced a Saturn price reduction to $299
[74] Moreover, high-quality Saturn ports of the Sega Model 2 arcade hits Sega Rally Championship,[75] Virtua Cop,[76] and Virtua Fighter 2 (running at 60 frames per second at a high resolution)[77][78][79] were available by the end of the year—and were generally regarded as superior to any competitors on the PlayStation
[14][80] Notwithstanding a subsequent increase in Saturn sales during the 1995 holiday season, these games were not enough to reverse the PlayStation’s decisive lead
[80][81] By 1996, the PlayStation had a considerably larger library than the Saturn, although Sega hoped to generate increased interest in the Saturn with upcoming exclusives such as Nights into Dreams
[60] Within its first year, the PlayStation secured over 20% of the entire U
video game market
[58] On the first day of the May 1996 E3 show, Sony announced a PlayStation price reduction to $199;[43] on the second day of the show Sega announced they were matching this price, even though Saturn hardware was more expensive to manufacture
[82][83] Sony’s price reduction was in turn a reaction to the release of the Model 2 Saturn in Japan at a price roughly equivalent to $199
“I thought the world of [Hayao] Nakayama because of his love of software
We spoke about building a new hardware platform that I would be very, very involved with, shape the direction of this platform, and hire a new team of people and restructure Sega
That, to me, was a great opportunity
In spite of the launch of the PlayStation and the Saturn, sales of 16-bit hardware/software continued to account for 64% of the video game market in 1995
[85][86] Sega underestimated the continued popularity of the Genesis, and did not have the inventory to meet demand for the product
[81][85] Sega was able to capture 43% of the dollar share of the U
video game market and sell more than 2 million Genesis units in 1995, but Kalinske estimated that “we could have sold another 300,000 Genesis systems in the November/December timeframe
“[81] Nakayama’s decision to focus on the Saturn over the Genesis, based on the systems’ relative performance in Japan, has been cited as the major contributing factor in this miscalculation
Due to long-standing disagreements with Sega of Japan,[23][36] Kalinske lost most of his interest in his work as CEO of Sega of America
[88] By the spring of 1996, rumors were circulating that Kalinske planned to leave Sega,[89] and a July 13 article in the press reported speculation that Sega of Japan was planning significant changes to Sega of America’s management team
[90] On July 16, 1996 Sega announced that Shoichiro Irimajiri had been appointed chairman and CEO of Sega of America, while Kalinske would be leaving Sega after September 30 of that year
[91][92] A former Honda executive,[93][94] Irimajiri had been actively involved with Sega of America since joining Sega in 1993
[91][95] Sega also announced that David Rosen and Nakayama had resigned from their positions as chairman and co-chairman of Sega of America, though both men remained with the company
[91][96] Bernie Stolar, a former executive at Sony Computer Entertainment of America,[90][97] was named Sega of America’s executive vice president in charge of product development and third-party relations
[91][92] Stolar, who had arranged a six-month PlayStation exclusivity deal for Mortal Kombat 3[98] and helped build close relations with Electronic Arts[36] while at Sony, was perceived as a major asset by Sega officials
[92] Finally, Sega of America made plans to expand its PC software business
Stolar was not supportive of the Saturn due to his belief that the hardware was poorly designed, and publicly announced at E3 1997 that “The Saturn is not our future
“[36] While Stolar had “no interest in lying to people” about the Saturn’s prospects, he continued to emphasize quality games for the system,[36] and subsequently reflected that “we tried to wind it down as cleanly as we could for the consumer
“[97] At Sony, Stolar opposed the localization of certain Japanese PlayStation titles that he felt would not represent the system well in North America, and he advocated a similar policy for the Saturn during his time at Sega, although he later sought to distance himself from this perception
[36][98][99] These changes were accompanied by a softer image that Sega was beginning to portray in its advertising, including removing the “Sega!” scream and holding press events for the education industry
[60] Marketing for the Saturn in Japan also changed with the introduction of “Segata Sanshiro” (played by Hiroshi Fujioka) as a character in a series of TV advertisements starting in 1997; the character would eventually star in a Saturn video game
Temporarily abandoning arcade development, Sega AM2 head Yu Suzuki began developing several Saturn-exclusive games, including a role-playing game in the Virtua Fighter series
[102] Initially conceived as an obscure prototype called “The Old Man and the Peach Tree” and intended to address the flaws of contemporary Japanese RPGs (such as poor non-player character artificial intelligence routines), Virtua Fighter RPG evolved into a planned 11-part, 45-hour “revenge epic in the tradition of Chinese cinema”–which Suzuki hoped would become the Saturn’s killer app
[36][103][104] The game was eventually released as Shenmue for the Saturn’s successor, the Dreamcast
Sega tasked the U
-based Sega Technical Institute (STI) with developing what would have been the first fully 3D entry in its popular Sonic the Hedgehog series
The game, known as Sonic X-treme, was moved to the Saturn after several prototypes were discarded
[107][108][109] Featuring a fisheye lens camera system that caused levels to rotate with Sonic’s movement, the project was set back after Sonic creator Yuji Naka refused to allow the developers access to the engine he created for Nights into Dreams
[108][110] Sega of Japan executives who visited STI in March 1996 were unimpressed by X-treme’s progress, so Nakayama ordered that the entire game be reworked around the engine created specifically for its boss battles, and employees worked between 16 and 20 hours a day in an attempt to meet their December 1996 deadline
[108][109][110] After programmer Ofer Alon quit and designer Chris Senn caught pneumonia, the project was cancelled in early 1997
[108][109][110] Sonic Team started work on an original 3D Sonic title for the Saturn (which eventually became Sonic Adventure), but development was shifted to the Dreamcast
[111][112] STI was officially disbanded in 1996 as a result of changes in management at Sega of America
Journalists and fans have speculated about the impact a completed X-treme might have had on the market
David Houghton of GamesRadar described the prospect of “a good 3D Sonic game” on the Saturn as “a ‘What if
‘ situation on a par with the dinosaurs not becoming extinct
“[109] IGN’s Tavis Fahs called X-treme “the turning point not only for Sega’s mascot and their 32-bit console, but for the entire company”, although he also noted that the game served as “an empty vessel for Sega’s ambitions and the hopes of their fans”
[108] Dave Zdyrko, who operated a prominent website for Saturn fans during the system’s lifespan, offered a more nuanced perspective: “I don’t know if [X-treme] could’ve saved the Saturn, but 
Sonic helped make the Genesis and it made absolutely no sense why there wasn’t a great new Sonic title ready at or near the launch of the [Saturn]”
[21] In a 2007 retrospective, producer Mike Wallis maintained that X-treme “definitely would have been competitive” with Nintendo’s Super Mario 64
From 1993 to early 1996, although Sega’s revenue declined as part of an industry-wide slowdown,[58][113] the company retained control of 38% of the U
video game market (compared to Nintendo’s 30% and Sony’s 24%)
[86] 800,000 PlayStation units were sold in the U
by the end of 1995, compared to 400,000 Saturn units
[114][115] In part due to an aggressive price war,[58] the PlayStation outsold the Saturn by two-to-one in 1996, while Sega’s 16-bit sales declined markedly
[86] By the end of 1996, the PlayStation had sold 2
9 million units in the U
, more than twice the 1
2 million units sold by the Saturn
[50] After the launch of the Nintendo 64 in 1996, sales of the Saturn and Sega’s 32-bit software were sharply reduced,[97] while the PlayStation outsold the Saturn by three-to-one in the U
market in 1997
[58] The 1997 release of Final Fantasy VII significantly increased the PlayStation’s popularity in Japan
[116][117] As of August 1997, Sony controlled 47% of the console market, Nintendo controlled 40%, and Sega controlled only 12%
Neither price cuts nor high-profile game releases were proving helpful to the Saturn’s success
[97] Reflecting decreased demand for the system, worldwide Saturn shipments during March to September 1997 declined from 2
35 million to 600,000 versus the same period in 1996; shipments in North America declined from 800,000 to 50,000
[118] Due to the Saturn’s poor performance in North America, 60 of Sega of America’s 200 employees were laid off in the fall of 1997
“I thought the Saturn was a mistake as far as hardware was concerned
The games were obviously terrific, but the hardware just wasn’t there
As a result of the company’s deteriorating financial situation, Nakayama resigned as president of Sega in January 1998 in favor of Irimajiri
[93] Stolar would subsequently accede to president of Sega of America
[97][119] Following five years of generally declining profits,[120] in the fiscal year ending March 31, 1998 Sega suffered its first parent and consolidated financial losses since its 1988 listing on the Tokyo Stock Exchange
[121] Due to a 54
8% decline in consumer product sales (including a 75
4% decline overseas), the company reported a net loss of ¥43
3 billion (US$327
8 million) and a consolidated net loss of ¥35
6 billion (US$269
[120] Shortly before announcing its financial losses, Sega revealed that it was discontinuing the Saturn in North America, with the goal of preparing for the launch of its successor
[93][97] Only 12 Saturn games were released in North America in 1998 (Magic Knight Rayearth being the final official release), compared to 119 in 1996
[122][123] The Saturn would last longer in Japan and Europe
[94] Rumors about the upcoming Dreamcast—spread mainly by Sega itself—were leaked to the public before the last Saturn games were released
[94] The Dreamcast was released on November 27, 1998 in Japan and on September 9, 1999 in North America
[124] The decision to abandon the Saturn effectively left the Western market without Sega games for over one year
[125] Sega suffered an additional ¥42
881 billion consolidated net loss in the fiscal year ending March 1999, and the company announced plans to eliminate 1,000 jobs, or nearly one-fourth of its workforce
Worldwide Saturn sales include at least the following amounts in each territory: 5
75 million in Japan (surpassing the Genesis’ sales of 3
58 million in the country[128]), 1
8 million in the United States, 1 million in Europe, and 530,000 elsewhere
[129] With lifetime sales of 9
26 million units,[130] the Saturn is considered a commercial failure,[131] although its install base in Japan surpassed the Nintendo 64’s 5
[132] Lack of distribution has been cited as a significant factor contributing to the Saturn’s failure, as the system’s surprise launch damaged Sega’s reputation with key retailers
[50] Conversely, Nintendo’s long delay in releasing a 3D console and damage caused to Sega’s reputation by poorly supported add-ons for the Genesis are considered major factors allowing Sony to gain a foothold in the market
Featuring a total of eight processors[134] the Saturn’s main central processing units are two Hitachi SH-2 microprocessors clocked at 28
6 MHz and capable of 56 MIPS
[17][50] The system contains a Motorola 68EC000 running at 11
3 MHz as a sound controller, a custom sound processor with an integrated Yamaha FH1[135] DSP running at 22
6 MHz[136] capable of up to 32 sound channels with both FM synthesis and 16-bit PCM sampling at a maximum rate of 44
1 kHz,[137] and two video display processors,[14] the VDP1 (which handles sprites, textures and polygons) and the VDP2 (which handles backgrounds)
[136] Its double-speed CD-ROM drive is controlled by a dedicated Hitachi SH-1 processor to reduce load times
[34] The Saturn’s System Control Unit (SCU), which controls all buses and functions as a co-processor of the main SH-2 CPU, has an internal DSP[17] running at 14
[136] The Saturn contains a cartridge slot for memory expansion,[134] 16 Mbit of work random-access memory (RAM), 12 Mbit of video RAM, 4 Mbit of RAM for sound functions, 4 Mbit of CD buffer RAM and 256 Kbit (32 KB) of battery backup RAM
[137] Its video output, provided by a stereo AV cable,[137] displays at resolutions from 320×224 to 704×224 pixels,[138] and is capable of displaying up to 16
77 million colors simultaneously
[137] Physically, the Saturn measures 260 mm × 230 mm × 83 mm (10
2 in × 9
1 in × 3
The Saturn was sold packaged with an instruction manual, one control pad, a stereo AV cable, and its 100V AC power supply, with a power consumption of approximately 15W
“One very fast central processor would be preferable
I don’t think all programmers have the ability to program two CPUs—most can only get about one-and-a-half times the speed you can get from one SH-2
I think that only 1 in 100 programmers are good enough to get this kind of speed [nearly double] out of the Saturn
The Saturn had technically impressive hardware at the time of its release, but its complexity made harnessing this power difficult for developers accustomed to conventional programming
[139] The greatest disadvantage was that both CPUs shared the same bus and were unable to access system memory at the same time
Making full use of the 4 kB of cache memory in each CPU was critical to maintaining performance
For example, Virtua Fighter used one CPU for each character,[17] while Nights used one CPU for 3D environments and the other for 2D objects
[140] The Saturn’s Visual Display Processor 2 (VDP2), which can generate and manipulate backgrounds,[141] has also been cited as one of the system’s most important features
“The Sega Saturn couldn’t do true 3D
The Saturn’s design elicited mixed commentary among game developers and journalists
Developers quoted by Next Generation in December 1995 described the Saturn as “a real coder’s machine” for “those who love to get their teeth into assembly and really hack the hardware”, with “more flexibility” and “more calculating power than the PlayStation”
The Saturn’s sound board was also widely praised
[19] By contrast, Lobotomy Software programmer Ezra Dreisbach described the Saturn as significantly slower than the PlayStation,[143] whereas Kenji Eno of WARP observed little difference between the two systems
[144] In particular, Dreisbach criticized the Saturn’s use of quadrilaterals as its basic geometric primitive, in contrast to the triangles rendered by the PlayStation and the Nintendo 64
[143] Third-party development was initially hindered by the lack of useful software libraries and development tools, requiring developers to write in assembly language to achieve good performance
During early Saturn development, programming in assembly could offer a two-to-fivefold speed increase over C language
[17] The Saturn hardware is considered extremely difficult to emulate
[145] Sega responded to complaints about the difficulty of programming for the Saturn by writing new graphics libraries which were claimed to make development easier
[19] Sega of America also purchased a United Kingdom-based development firm, Cross Products, to produce the Saturn’s official development system
[32][146] Despite these challenges, Treasure CEO Masato Maegawa stated that the Nintendo 64 was more difficult to develop for than the Saturn
[147] Traveller’s Tales’ Jon Burton opined that while the PlayStation was easier “to get started on 
you quickly reach [its] limits”, whereas the Saturn’s “complicated” hardware had the ability to “improve the speed and look of a game when all used together correctly
“[148] A major point of criticism was the Saturn’s use of 2D sprites to generate polygons and simulate 3D space
The PlayStation functioned in a similar manner, but also featured a dedicated “Geometry Transfer Engine” that rendered additional polygons
As a result, several analysts described the Saturn as an “essentially” 2D system
Several models of the Saturn were produced in Japan
An updated model in a recolored light gray (officially white[84]) was released in Japan at a price of ¥20,000 in order to reduce the system’s cost[150] and raise its appeal among women and younger children
[84][151] Two models were released by third parties: Hitachi released a model known as the Hi-Saturn (a smaller Saturn model equipped with a car navigation function),[152] while JVC released the V-Saturn
[137] Saturn controllers came in various color schemes to match different models of the console
[153] The system also supports several accessories
A wireless controller powered by AA batteries utilizes infrared signal to connect to the Saturn
[154] Designed to work with Nights, the Saturn 3D Pad is a fully functional controller that includes both a control pad and an analog stick for directional input
[155] Sega also released several versions of arcade sticks as peripherals, including the Virtua Stick,[156][157] the Virtua Stick Pro,[158] the Mission Analog Stick,[159] and the Twin Stick
[160] Sega also created a light gun peripheral known as the “Virtua Gun” for use with shooting games such as Virtua Cop and The Guardian,[161] as well as the Arcade Racer, a wheel for racing games
[162][163] The Play Cable allows for two Saturn consoles to be connected for multiplayer gaming across two screens,[164][165] while a multitap allows up to six players to play games on the same console
[166][167] The Saturn was designed to support up to 12 players on a single console, by using two multitaps
[168] RAM cartridges expand the amount of memory in the system
[169] Other accessories include a keyboard,[170] mouse,[171][172] floppy disk drive,[173] and movie card
Like the Genesis, the Saturn had an Internet-based gaming service
The Sega NetLink was a 28
8k modem that fit into the cartridge slot in the Saturn for direct dial multiplayer
[14] In Japan, a now defunct pay-to-play service was used
[175] It could also be used for web browsing, sending email, and online chat
[176] Because the NetLink was released before the Saturn keyboard, Sega produced a series of CDs containing hundreds of website addresses so that Saturn owners could browse with the joypad
[177] The NetLink functioned with five games: Daytona USA, Duke Nukem 3D, Saturn Bomberman,[178] Sega Rally, and Cyber Troopers Virtual-On: Operation Moongate
[179] Sega allegedly developed a variant of the Saturn featuring a built-in NetLink modem under the code name “Sega Pluto”, but it was never released
Sega developed an arcade board based on the Saturn’s hardware, called the Sega ST-V (or Titan), which was intended as an affordable alternative to Sega’s Model 2 arcade board as well as a testing ground for upcoming Saturn software
[17] The Titan was criticized for its comparatively weak performance by Sega AM2’s Yu Suzuki[17] and was overproduced by Sega’s arcade division
[107] Because Sega already possessed the Die Hard license, members of Sega AM1 working at the Sega Technical Institute developed Die Hard Arcade for the Titan, in order to clear out excess inventory
[107] This goal was achieved, as Die Hard became the most successful Sega arcade game produced in the United States at that point
[107] Other games released for the Titan include Golden Axe: The Duel and Virtua Fighter Kids
Much of the Saturn’s library comes from Sega’s arcade ports,[36] including Daytona USA, The House of the Dead,[181] Last Bronx, Sega Rally Championship, the Virtua Cop series, the Virtua Fighter series, and Virtual-On
[182] The Saturn ports of 2D Capcom fighting games including Darkstalkers 3, Marvel Super Heroes vs
Street Fighter, and Street Fighter Alpha 3 were noted for their faithfulness to their arcade counterparts
[182][183] Fighters Megamix, developed by Sega AM2 for the Saturn rather than arcades,[105] combined characters from Fighting Vipers and Virtua Fighter to positive reviews
[184] Highly rated Saturn exclusives include Panzer Dragoon Saga,[185] Dragon Force,[186] Guardian Heroes,[187][188] Nights,[189][190] Panzer Dragoon II Zwei,[191] and Shining Force III
[192][193][194] Although originally made for the PlayStation, games such as Castlevania: Symphony of the Night, Resident Evil, and Wipeout 2097 received Saturn ports with mixed results
[182] Tomb Raider was created with the Saturn in mind, but the PlayStation version ultimately became better known to the public
[21][182][195] Lobotomy Software’s PowerSlave featured some of the most impressive 3D graphics on the system, leading Sega to contract the developer to produce Saturn ports of Duke Nukem 3D and Quake
[21][182] While Electronic Arts’ limited support for the Saturn and Sega’s failure to develop a football game for the 1996 fall season allowed Sony to take the lead in the sports genre,[21][36][60] “Sega Sports” published Saturn sports games including the well-regarded World Series Baseball and Sega Worldwide Soccer series
[21][196] With about 600 official releases, the Saturn’s library is nearly twice as large as the Nintendo 64’s
Due to the cancellation of Sonic X-treme, the Saturn lacks an exclusive Sonic the Hedgehog platformer, containing only a graphically enhanced port of the Genesis title Sonic 3D Blast, the compilation Sonic Jam, and a racing game called Sonic R
[14][197] The platformer Bug! received attention for it’s eponymous main character being a potential mascot for the Saturn, but it failed to catch on as the Sonic series had
[198][199][200] Considered one of the most important Saturn releases, Sonic Team developed Nights into Dreams
, a score attack game that attempted to simulate both the joy of flying and the fleeting sensation of dreams
The gameplay of Nights involves steering the imp-like androgynous protagonist, Nights, as it flies on a mostly 2D plane across surreal stages broken into four segments each
The levels repeat for as long as an in-game time limit allows, while flying over or looping around various objects in rapid succession earns additional points
Although it lacked the fully 3D environments of Nintendo’s Super Mario 64, Nights’ emphasis on unfettered movement and graceful acrobatic techniques showcased the intuitive potential of analog control
[140][201][202] Sonic Team’s Burning Rangers, a fully 3D[21] action-adventure game involving a team of outer-space firefighters, garnered praise for its transparency effects and distinctive art direction, but was released in limited quantities late in the Saturn’s lifespan and criticized for its short length
Some of the games that made the Saturn popular in Japan, such as Grandia[21] and the Sakura Wars series, never saw a Western release due to Sega of America’s policy of not localizing RPGs and other Japanese titles that might have damaged the system’s reputation in North America
[36][206] Despite appearing first on the Saturn, games such as Dead or Alive,[182][207] Grandia,[182] and Lunar: Silver Star Story Complete only saw a Western release on the PlayStation
[21] Working Designs localized several Japanese Saturn games before a public feud between Sega of America’s Bernie Stolar and Working Designs president Victor Ireland resulted in the company switching their support to the PlayStation
[21] Panzer Dragoon Saga was praised as perhaps the finest RPG for the system due to its cinematic presentation, evocative plot, and unique battle system—with a tactical emphasis on circling around opponents to identify weak points and the ability to “morph” the physical attributes of the protagonist’s dragon companion during combat—but Sega released fewer than 20,000 retail copies of the game in North America in what IGN’s Levi Buchanan characterized as one example of the Saturn’s “ignominious send-off” in the region
[204][208][209] Similarly, only the first of three installments of Shining Force III was released outside Japan
[194] The Saturn’s library also garnered criticism for its lack of sequels to high-profile Genesis-era Sega franchises, with Sega of Japan’s cancellation of a planned third installment in Sega of America’s popular Eternal Champions series cited as a significant source of controversy
Later ports of Saturn games including Guardian Heroes,[211] Nights,[202] and Shin Megami Tensei: Devil Summoner: Soul Hackers[212] continued to garner positive reviews
Partly due to rarity, Saturn titles such as Panzer Dragoon Saga[208][213][209] and Radiant Silvergun[214][215] have been noted for their cult following
Due to the system’s commercial failure and hardware limitations, planned Saturn versions of games such as Resident Evil 2,[216] Shenmue, Sonic Adventure, and Virtua Fighter 3[217][218] were cancelled and moved to the Dreamcast
At the time of its release, Famicom Tsūshin awarded the Saturn console 24 out of 40 possible points, higher than the PlayStation’s 19 out of 40
[219] In June 1995, Dennis Lynch of the Chicago Tribune and Albert Kim of Entertainment Weekly both praised the Saturn as the most advanced gaming console available, with the former complimenting its double-speed CD-ROM drive and “intense surround-sound capabilities” and the latter citing Panzer Dragoon as a “lyrical and exhilarating epic” demonstrating the ability of new technology to “transform” the industry
[220][221] In December 1995, Next Generation evaluated the system with three and a half stars out of a possible five, highlighting Sega’s marketing and arcade background as strengths but the system’s complexity as a weakness
[19] Electronic Gaming Monthly’s December 1996 Buyer’s Guide had four reviewers rate the Saturn 8, 6, 7, and 8 out of 10; these ratings were inferior to those of the PlayStation, which was scored 9, 10, 9, and 9 in the same review
[222] By December 1998, Electronic Gaming Monthly’s reviews were more mixed, with reviewers citing the lack of titles for the system as a major issue
According to EGM reviewer Crispin Boyer, “the Saturn is the only system that can thrill me one month and totally disappoint me the next
Retrospective feedback of the Saturn is mixed, but generally praises its game library
[36][182] According to Greg Sewart of 1UP
com, “the Saturn will go down in history as one of the most troubled, and greatest, systems of all time
“[21] In 2009, IGN chose the Saturn to be their 18th best video game console of all time, praising its unique game library
According to the reviewers, “While the Saturn ended up losing the popularity contest to both Sony and Nintendo 
Nights into Dreams, the Virtua Fighter and Panzer Dragoon series are all examples of exclusive titles that made the console a fan favorite
“[183] The staff of Edge noted “hardened loyalists continue to reminisce about the console that brought forth games like Burning Rangers, Guardian Heroes, Dragon Force and Panzer Dragoon Saga
“[224] In 2015, The Guardian’s Keith Stuart declared “the Saturn has perhaps the strongest line up of 2D shooters and fighting games in console history
“[225] Retro Gamer’s Damien McFerran stated “Even today, despite the widespread availability of sequels and re-releases on other formats, the Sega Saturn is still a worthwhile investment for those who appreciate the unique gameplay styles of the companies that supported it
“[14] IGN’s Adam Redsell wrote “[Sega’s] devil-may-care attitude towards game development in the Saturn and Dreamcast eras is something that we simply do not see outside of the indie scene today
“[179] Necrosoft Games director Brandon Sheffield expounded that “The Saturn was a landing point for games that were too ‘adult’ in content for other systems, as it was the only one that allowed an 18+ rating for content in Japan 
some games, like Enemy Zero used it to take body horror to new levels, an important step toward the expansion of games and who they served
“[123] Sewart praised the Saturn’s first-party titles as “Sega’s shining moment as a game developer”, with Sonic Team demonstrating its creative range and AM2 producing numerous technically impressive arcade ports, but also commented on the many Japan-exclusive Saturn releases, which he connected with a subsequent boom in the game import market
[21] IGN’s Travis Fahs was critical of the Saturn library’s lack of “fresh ideas” and “precious few high-profile franchises”, in contrast to what he described as Sega’s more creative Dreamcast output
Criticism has befallen Sega’s management regarding both the creation and handling of the Saturn
McFerran criticizes Sega’s management at the time of the Saturn’s development, claiming that they had “fallen out of touch with both the demands of the market and the industry”
[14] Bernie Stolar has also been criticized for his decision to end support for the Saturn
[21] According to Fahs, “Stolar’s decision to abandon the Saturn made him a villain to many Sega fans, but 
it was better to regroup than to enter the next fight battered and bruised
Dreamcast would be Stolar’s redemption
“[36] Stolar has defended his decision, stating, “I felt Saturn was hurting the company more than helping it
That was a battle that we weren’t going to win
“[97] Sheffield stated that the Saturn’s use of quadrilaterals undermined third-party support for the system, but because “nVidia invested in quads” at the same time there is “a remote possibility” they could have “become the standard instead of triangles”—”if somehow, magically, the Saturn were the most popular console of that era
“[123] Speaking more positively of the system, former Working Designs president Victor Ireland described the Saturn as “the start of the future of console gaming” because it “got the better developers thinking and designing with parallel-processing architecture in mind for the first time”
[21] Writing for GamesRadar, Justin Towell noted that the Saturn’s 3D Pad “set the template for every successful controller that followed, with analog shoulder triggers and left thumbstick 
I don’t see any three-pronged controllers around the office these days
Perry of Gamasutra notes that, from its surprise launch to its ultimate failure, the Saturn “soured many gamers on Sega products
“[227] Sewart and IGN’s Levi Buchanan cited the failure of the Saturn as the major reason for Sega’s downfall as a hardware manufacturer, but USgamer’s Jeremy Parish described the Saturn as “more a symptom 
than a cause” of the company’s decline, which began with add-ons for the Genesis that fragmented the market and continued with Sega of America and Sega of Japan’s competing designs for the Dreamcast
[21][123][228] Sheffield portrayed Sega’s mistakes with the Saturn as emblematic of the broader decline of the Japanese gaming industry: “They thought they were invincible, and that structure and hierarchy were necessary for their survival, but more flexibility, and a greater participation with the West could have saved them
“[123] According to Stuart, Sega “didn’t see 
the roots of a prevailing trend, away from arcade conversions and traditional role-playing adventures and toward a much wider console development community with fresh ideas about gameplay and structure
“[229] Pulp365 reviews editor Matt Paprocki concluded “the Saturn is a relic, but an important one, which represents the harshness of progress and what it can leave in its wake”