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These 6 Questions Will Help You Decide How to Make Money Online

funny cats

These 6 Questions Will Help You Decide How to Make Money Online

In Moonlighting on the Internet, internet entrepreneur Shelby Larson presents the most reliable and proven ways you can create an extra paycheck for the short term and establish a continual revenue stream for the long term with your own website. In this edited excerpt, Larson reviews the six questions you must answer before attempting to start making money online.

When you decide to start on online business, you need to ask yourself a number of questions to determine whether this is the right path for you. Let’s explore six of them.

1. Do you want to work for yourself or own your own business?

While working for yourself does mean having your own business, the distinction is that you’re relying on your skills, talents, or resources for your monetization. A great example of this is being a freelance writer. You’re writing content for money, and your income is dependent on your ability to write quality content.

By contrast, if you were to choose to try your hand at eCommerce, you’d be developing channels online to sell products, either digital or physical. So you’re definitely still working for yourself, especially in the beginning, but the “thing” you’re selling doesn’t rely on your individual work, generally speaking. While you’re still putting time and effort into your company, and therefore working for yourself, your point of monetization is something outside the work you do.

2. What are your personal skills and talents?

Everyone has marketable skills. By creating a list of your skills and talents, as you evaluate different opportunities, you’ll more quickly be able to assess what things you’ll need to hire or acquire to be successful, and if that’s realistic for you at this time.

Everything should be taken into consideration. This should be a fact-based list without emotion attached to it. Even if you don’t understand how a particular skill or experience could be beneficial, write it down. Also write them down without respect to whether you enjoy doing them.

Next, rate your skills and talents based on how much you enjoy doing each of them:

Donation Box and Red Heart

  • I LOVE doing this.
  • It’s not my first choice, but I’m good at it, so if it needs to get done, I can do it.
  • I’m neutral. I could take it or leave it.
  • While I’m good at this, I don’t want to do it any longer than it takes to replace myself.
  • I’d rather eat dog food than do this skill for any length of time; it’s a deal breaker.

Being aware of the skills you bring to the table and how you feel about each of them helps you make long-term and short-term decisions and set goals. It gives you clarity about whom you might need to hire when looking at any specific business and helps you evaluate what areas you may need to finance vs. sweat equity. It also helps you make outsourcing and partnering decisions, and will greatly impact how you look at your implementation timelines and processes.

3. What are your hobbies, passions and experience?

Making money online is exciting. Making money online about a topic you love is even better. That’s when your work doesn’t feel like work. For this reason, listing your hobbies, interests, and topics so you’re aware of niches and industries you have some advanced knowledge in will be very helpful to you.

There’s no interest that doesn’t count. Here are a few ideas to help you desc

  • Hobbies. Do you have hobbies about which you’re passionate? Perhaps you belly dance or sail or are really into massively multi­player online role-playing games (MMORPG) games like World of Warcraft. Do you show dogs? Do you run a playgroup for moms? Are you an artist? Do you play any sports? Do you love to travel? Are you an avid photographer? Do you sew?
  • Education. Do you have a degree or certification in anything? Do you have a psychology degree? Are you a certified doula? Did you get a certification or training program in something else?
  • Profession. Are you or were you at any time a nurse? Have you worked as a dental hygienist? Did you work in a flower shop and can make wicked flower arrangements? Do you have experience in event planning? Have you worked in real estate off and on your whole life?
  • Everyday life. Are you a fashionista? Do you follow the current music scene? Are you interested in politics? Are you a parent? Are you a corporate executive? Are you an extreme couponer?

These are just a few examples to get your juices flowing. Trust me, if you have something you are passionate about or interested in, there are tons of other people who are, too. There very well may be a business in that industry for you, so be thorough!

US Currency: Folded bills showing faces of famous American Politicians

4. What are your financial resources?

Your first step is to take inventory of what capital you could draw from should you need or choose to. Then ask yourself: Are you good at managing money? In my opinion, whether or not you’re naturally gifted at managing money isn’t as important as knowing whether you are. So whether you’re “good” or “bad” with finances is less important than whether you have a realistic understanding of your strengths or weaknesses in this area so that if, by chance, you tend to be bad with finances, you can compensate for that weakness. If your answer is yes, then great. If your answer is no, then it needs to be on your radar so you can put a financial plan in place.

5. What are your personal limitations and lifestyle?

Time is by far one of the most precious, sought-after commodities you possess. You may not think of your time as a currency, but you absolutely must while working to make money online. For most people, their time is more valuable than money. It must be treated as the treasure it really is.

How much time do you realistically have to spend each week creating your new profit path? Can you carve out one hour per week? Two? Five? More? If the opportunity were good enough, could you temporarily devote more time to it? Remember, “no” is an acceptable answer. The point of this process is to know what resources you have available to you and how you’d get them if you needed or chose to.

Patience is another currency that’s not infinite. The more you’re balancing on your plate, the more patience will be demanded of you. Add to this list positivity, coping ability, and energy — these are all critical in all areas of our life. I bring this up because burnout is a very real possibility. Wherever you’re spending your various currencies, you’re taking away from another area of your life.

Think carefully about how you’ll stay balanced, and how you’ll know when you’re not. Sometimes you’ll choose to run with your time and resources unbalanced in the short term to get a dream off the ground. That’s OK. The point is, you’re doing it deliberately. Trust me when I tell you it’s not pleasant to crash because you’ve been running unbalanced for too long and you have no idea how to course correct.

Who’s your support system? Is it a spouse? A best friend? Does your dog help you stay balanced and happy? Who can you lean on? Who’s a resounding voice of reason who can help you evaluate what you’re doing and how you’re doing it when things get stressful? Everyone needs a support structure, so who’s on your “Team Awesome”?

6. What are your deal breakers?

The last thing to evaluate are your deal breakers and/or limitations. For instance, you may have an allotted amount of time you’re willing to devote to your profit path, and if it consistently requires more time than that, then it’s not a good match for you. Another example is travel. For some people, having to travel frequently would be a deal breaker. For others, the thought of being required to do any public speaking would kill the deal.

Go here for a free video to find out more about how people in 2016 are making money online.<=========

So what are your non-negotiable and personal limitations? Take some time to compose your own list of deal breakers. Ultimately, this deep dive into your skills and resources is about really understanding what’s important to you and what you bring to the table that you can leverage to make the most intelligent plans for moving forward.




Spending too much money and time on facebook?

A social networking service (also social networking site or SNS) is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share similar interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections
A social network service consists of a representation of each user (often a profile), his or her social links, and a variety of additional services such as career services
[1] Social network sites are web-based services that allow individuals to create a public profile, create a list of users with whom to share connections, and view and cross the connections within the system
[2] Most social network services are web-based and provide means for users to interact over the Internet, such as e-mail and instant messaging
Social network sites are varied and they incorporate new information and communication tools such as mobile connectivity, photo/video/sharing and blogging
[3] Online community services are sometimes considered a social network service, though in a broader sense, social network service usually means an individual-centered service whereas online community services are group-centered
Social networking sites allow users to share ideas, pictures, posts, activities, events, and interests with people in their network
According to the Oxford Dictionary, a “social network” is a dedicated website or other application that enables users to communicate with each other by posting information, comments, messages, images, etc
The main types of social networking services are those that contain category places (such as former school year or classmates), means to connect with friends (usually with self-description pages), and a recommendation system linked to trust
Popular methods now combine many of these, with American-based services such as Facebook, Google+, LinkedIn, Instagram, Pinterest, Vine, Tumblr, and Twitter widely used worldwide; Wechat, Sina Weibo, and Tencent QQ in China; Nexopia in Canada;[4] Badoo,[5] Bebo,[6] Vkontakte (Russia), Delphi, Draugiem
lv (Latvia), iWiW (Hungary), Nasza-Klasa (Poland), Soup (Austria), Glocals in Switzerland, Skyrock, The Sphere, StudiVZ (Germany), Tagged, Tuenti (mostly in Spain), Myspace, Xanga and XING[7] in parts of Europe;[8] Hi5 in South America and Central America; Mxit in Africa;[9] CarnivalPics based in Nigeria; Cyworld, Mixi, Renren, Friendster, Sina Weibo and Wretch in Asia and the Pacific Islands
Social network services can be split into three types: socializing social network services are primarily for socializing with existing friends (e
, Facebook); networking social network services are primarily for non-social interpersonal communication (e
, LinkedIn); and social navigation social network services are primarily for helping users to find specific information or resources (e
, Goodreads for books)
There have been attempts to standardize these services to avoid the need to duplicate entries of friends and interests (see the FOAF standard)
A study reveals that India has recorded world’s largest growth in terms of social media users in 2013
[11] A 2013 survey found that 73% of U
adults use social networking sites
The potential for computer networking to facilitate newly improved forms of computer-mediated social interaction was suggested early on
[13] Efforts to support social networks via computer-mediated communication were made in many early online services, including Usenet,[14] ARPANET, LISTSERV, and bulletin board services (BBS)
Many prototypical features of social networking sites were also present in online services such as America Online, Prodigy, CompuServe, ChatNet, and The WELL
Early social networking on the World Wide Web began in the form of generalized online communities such as Theglobe
com (1995),[16] Geocities (1994) and Tripod
Many of these early communities focused on bringing people together to interact with each other through chat rooms, and encouraged users to share personal information and ideas via personal webpages by providing easy-to-use publishing tools and free or inexpensive webspace
Some communities – such as Classmates
com – took a different approach by simply having people link to each other via email addresses
PlanetAll started in 1996
In the late 1990s, user profiles became a central feature of social networking sites, allowing users to compile lists of “friends” and search for other users with similar interests
New social networking methods were developed by the end of the 1990s, and many sites began to develop more advanced features for users to find and manage friends
[17] This newer generation of social networking sites began to flourish with the emergence of SixDegrees
com in 1997,[18] followed by Makeoutclub in 2000,[19][20] Hub Culture and Friendster in 2002,[21] and soon became part of the Internet mainstream
However, thanks to the nation’s high internet penetration rate, the first mass social networking site was the South Korean service, Cyworld, launched as a blog-based site in 1999 and social networking features added in 2001
[22] It also became one of the first companies to profit from the sale of virtual goods
[23][24] Friendster was followed by MySpace and LinkedIn a year later, and eventually Bebo
Friendster became very popular in the Pacific Islands
Orkut became the first popular social networking service in Brazil (although most of its very first users were from the United States) and quickly grew in popularity in India (Madhavan, 2007)
[25] Attesting to the rapid increase in social networking sites’ popularity, by 2005, it was reported that Myspace was getting more page views than Google
Facebook,[26] launched in 2004, became the largest social networking site in the world[27] in early 2009
[28] Facebook was first introduced (in 2004) as a Harvard social networking site,[25] expanding to other universities and eventually, anyone
The term Social media was introduced and soon became widespread
Web-based social networking services make it possible to connect people who share interests and activities across political, economic, and geographic borders
[30] Through e-mail and instant messaging, online communities are created where a gift economy and reciprocal altruism are encouraged through cooperation
Information is suited to a gift economy, as information is a nonrival good and can be gifted at practically no cost
[31][32] Scholars[33] have noted that the term “social” cannot account for technological features of the social network platforms alone
Hence, the level of network sociability should determine by the actual performances of its users
According to the communication theory of uses and gratifications, an increasing amount of individuals are looking to the internet and social media to fulfill cognitive, affective, personal integrative, social integrative, and tension free needs
With internet technology as a supplement to fulfill needs, it is in turn affecting every day life, including relationships, school, church, entertainment, and family
Companies are using social media as a way to learn about potential employees’ personalities and behavior
[35] In numerous situations a candidate who might otherwise have been hired has been rejected due to offensive or otherwise unseemly photos or comments posted to social networks or appearing on a newsfeed
Facebook and other social networking tools are increasingly the object of scholarly research
Scholars in many fields have begun to investigate the impact of social networking sites, investigating how such sites may play into issues of identity, privacy,[36] social capital, youth culture, and education
[37] Research has also suggested that individuals add offline friends on Facebook to maintain contact and often this blurs the lines between work and home lives
According to a study in 2015, 63% of the users of Facebook or Twitter in the USA consider these networks to be their main source of news, with entertainment news being the most seen
In the times of breaking news, Twitter users are more likely to stay invested in the story
In some cases when the news story is more political, users may be more likely to voice their opinion on a linked Facebook story with a comment or like, while Twitter users will just follow the sites feed and/ or retweet the article
Several websites are beginning to tap into the power of the social networking model for philanthropy
Such models provide a means for connecting otherwise fragmented industries and small organizations without the resources to reach a broader audience with interested users
[40] Social networks are providing a different way for individuals to communicate digitally
These communities of hypertexts allow for the sharing of information and ideas, an old concept placed in a digital environment
In 2011, HCL Technologies conducted research that showed that 50% of British employers had banned the use of social networking sites/services during office hours
Research has provided us with mixed results as to whether or not one’s involvement in social networking can affect their feelings of loneliness
Studies have indicated that how a person chooses to use social networking can change their feelings of loneliness in either a negative or positive way
Some companies with mobile workers have encouraged their workers to use social networking to feel connected, educators are using it to keep connected with their students and individuals are benefiting from social networking to keep connect with already close relationships that they’ve developed under circumstances that would otherwise make it difficult to do so
([43]) Each social networking user is able to create a community that centers around a personal identity they choose to create online
According to Boyd and Ellison’s (2007) article, “Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites: The Role of Networked Publics in Teenage Social Life”, social networking sites share a variety of technical features that allow individuals to: construct a public/semi-public profile, articulate a list of other users that they share a connection with, and view their list of connections within the system
The most basic of these are visible profiles with a list of “friends” who are also users of the site
In an article entitled “Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship,” Boyd and Ellison adopt Sunden’s (2003) description of profiles as unique pages where one can “type oneself into being
“[45] A profile is generated from answers to questions, such as age, location, interests, etc
Some sites allow users to upload pictures, add multimedia content or modify the look and feel of the profile
, Facebook, allow users to enhance their profile by adding modules or “Applications
“[45] Many sites allow users to post blog entries, search for others with similar interests and compile and share lists of contacts
User profiles often have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users
To protect user privacy, social networks typically have controls that allow users to choose who can view their profile, contact them, add them to their list of contacts, and so on
There is a trend towards more interoperability between social networks led by technologies such as OpenID and OpenSocial
In most mobile communities, mobile phone users can now create their own profiles, make friends, participate in chat rooms, create chat rooms, hold private conversations, share photos and videos, and share blogs by using their mobile phone
Some companies provide wireless services that allow their customers to build their own mobile community and brand it; one of the most popular wireless services for social networking in North America and Nepal is Facebook Mobile
While the popularity of social networking consistently rises,[47] new uses for the technology are frequently being observed
At the forefront of emerging trends in social networking sites is the concept of “real-time web” and “location-based
” Real-time allows users to contribute contents, which is then broadcast as it is being uploaded – the concept is analogous to live radio and television broadcasts
Twitter set the trend for “real-time” services, wherein users can broadcast to the world what they are doing, or what is on their minds within a 140-character limit
Facebook followed suit with their “Live Feed” where users’ activities are streamed as soon as it happens
While Twitter focuses on words, Clixtr, another real-time service, focuses on group photo sharing wherein users can update their photo streams with photos while at an event
Facebook, however, remains the largest photo sharing site – Facebook application and photo aggregator Pixable estimates that Facebook will have 100 billion photos by Summer 2012
[48] In April, 2012, the image-based social media network Pinterest had become the third largest social network in the United States
Companies have begun to merge business technologies and solutions, such as cloud computing, with social networking concepts
Instead of connecting individuals based on social interest, companies are developing interactive communities that connect individuals based on shared business needs or experiences
Many provide specialized networking tools and applications that can be accessed via their websites, such as LinkedIn
Others companies, such as Monster
com, have been steadily developing a more “socialized” feel to their career center sites to harness some of the power of social networking sites
These more business related sites have their own nomenclature for the most part but the most common naming conventions are “Vocational Networking Sites” or “Vocational Media Networks”, with the former more closely tied to individual networking relationships based on social networking principles
Foursquare gained popularity as it allowed for users to “check-in” to places that they are frequenting at that moment
Gowalla is another such service that functions in much the same way that Foursquare does, leveraging the GPS in phones to create a location-based user experience
Clixtr, though in the real-time space, is also a location-based social networking site, since events created by users are automatically geotagged, and users can view events occurring nearby through the Clixtr iPhone app
Recently, Yelp announced its entrance into the location-based social networking space through check-ins with their mobile app; whether or not this becomes detrimental to Foursquare or Gowalla is yet to be seen, as it is still considered a new space in the Internet technology industry
One popular use for this new technology is social networking between businesses
Companies have found that social networking sites such as Facebook and Twitter are great ways to build their brand image
According to Jody Nimetz, author of Marketing Jive,[51] there are five major uses for businesses and social media: to create brand awareness, as an online reputation management tool, for recruiting, to learn about new technologies and competitors, and as a lead generation tool to intercept potential prospects
[51] These companies are able to drive traffic to their own online sites while encouraging their consumers and clients to have discussions on how to improve or change products or services
As of September 2013, 71% of online adults use Facebook, 17% use Instagram, 21% use Pinterest, and 22% use LinkedIn
Over the past few years the niche social network has steadily grown in popularity, thanks to better levels of user interaction and engagement
In 2012, a survey by Reuters and research firm Ipsos[53] found that one in three users were getting bored with Facebook and in 2014 the GlobalWebIndex found that this figured had risen to almost 50%
The niche social network offers a specialized space that’s designed to appeal to a very specific market with a clearly defined set of needs
Where once the streams of social minutia on networks such as Facebook and Twitter were the ultimate in online voyeurism, now users are looking for connections, community and shared experiences
Social networks that tap directly into specific activities, hobbies, tastes and lifestyles are seeing a consistent rise in popularity
These social platforms offer brands a rich space in which to engage with their target market and build awareness
One other use that is being discussed is the use of social networks in the science communities
Julia Porter Liebeskind et al
have published a study on how new biotechnology firms are using social networking sites to share exchanges in scientific knowledge
[54] They state in their study that by sharing information and knowledge with one another, they are able to “increase both their learning and their flexibility in ways that would not be possible within a self-contained hierarchical organization
” Social networking is allowing scientific groups to expand their knowledge base and share ideas, and without these new means of communicating their theories might become “isolated and irrelevant”
In fact, researchers use social networks frequently to maintain and develop professional relationships
[55] They are interested in consolidating social ties and professional contact, keeping in touch with friends and colleagues and seeing what their own contacts are doing
This can be related to their need to keep updated on the activities and events of their friends and colleagues in order to establish collaborations on common fields of interest and knowledge sharing
[56] Social Networks are used also to communicate scientists research results[57] and as a public communication tool and to connect people who share the same professional interests, their benefits can vary according to the discipline
[58] The most interesting aspects of social networks for professional purposes are their potentialities in terms of dissemination of information and the ability to reach and multiply professional contacts exponentially
Social networks like Academia
edu, LinkedIn, Facebook, and ResearchGate give the possibility to join professional groups and pages, to share papers and results, publicize events, to discuss issues and create debates
[56] Academia
edu is extensively used by researchers, where they follow a combination of social networking and scholarly norms
[59] ResearchGate is also widely used by researchers, especially to disseminate and discuss their publications,[60] where it seems to attract an audience that it wider than just other scientists
The advent of social networking platforms may also be impacting the way(s) in which learners engage with technology in general
For a number of years, Prensky’s (2001) dichotomy between Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants has been considered a relatively accurate representation of the ease with which people of a certain age range—in particular those born before and after 1980—use technology
Prensky’s theory has been largely disproved, however, and not least on account of the burgeoning popularity of social networking sites and other metaphors such as White and Le Cornu’s “Visitors” and “Residents” (2011) are greater currency
The use of online social networks by school libraries is also increasingly prevalent and they are being used to communicate with potential library users, as well as extending the services provided by individual school libraries
Social networks and their educational uses are of interest to many researchers
According to Livingstone and Brake (2010), “Social networking sites, like much else on the Internet, represent a moving target for researchers and policy makers
”[63] Pew Research Center project, called Pew Internet, did a USA-wide survey in 2009 and in 2010 February published that 47% of American adults use a social networking website
[64] Same survey found that 73% of online teenagers use SNS, which is an increase from 65% in 2008, 55% in 2006
[64] Recent studies have shown that social network services provide opportunities within professional education, curriculum education, and learning
However, there are constraints in this area
Researches, especially in Africa, have disclosed that the use of social networks among students have been known to negatively affect their academic life
This is buttressed by the fact that their use constitutes distractions, as well as that the students tend to invest a good deal of time in the use of such technologies
Albayrak and Yildirim (2015) examined the educational use of social networking sites
They investigated students’ involvement in Facebook as a Course Management System (CMS) and the findings of their study support that Facebook as a CMS has the potential to increase student involvement in discussions and out-of-class communication among instructors and students
Professional use of social networking services refers to the employment of a network site to connect with other professionals within a given field of interest
SNSs like LinkedIn, a social networking website geared towards companies and industry professionals looking to make new business contacts or keep in touch with previous co-workers, affiliates, and clients
Not only does LinkedIn provide a professional social use, but it also encourages people to inject their personality into their profile–making it more personal than a resume
[66] Other network sites are now being used in this manner, Twitter has become [a] mainstay for professional development as well as promotion[67] and online SNSs support both the maintenance of existing social ties and the formation of new connections
Much of the early research on online communities assume that individuals using these systems would be connecting with others outside their preexisting social group or location, liberating them to form communities around shared interests, as opposed to shared geography
[68] Other researchers have suggested that the professional use of network sites produce “social capital
” For individuals, social capital allows a person to draw on resources from other members of the networks to which he or she belongs
These resources can take the form of useful information, personal relationships, or the capacity to organize groups
As well, networks within these services also can be established or built by joining special interest groups that others have made, or creating one and asking others to join
According to Doering, Beach and O’Brien, a future English curriculum needs to recognize a major shift in how adolescents are communicating with each other
[70] Curriculum uses of social networking services also can include sharing curriculum-related resources
Educators tap into user-generated content to find and discuss curriculum-related content for students
Responding to the popularity of social networking services among many students, teachers are increasingly using social networks to supplement teaching and learning in traditional classroom environments as they can provide new opportunities for enriching existing curriculum through creative, authentic and flexible, non-linear learning experiences
[71] Some social networks, such as English, baby! and LiveMocha, are explicitly education-focused and couple instructional content with an educational peer environment
[72] The new Web 2
0 technologies built into most social networking services promote conferencing, interaction, creation, research on a global scale, enabling educators to share, remix, and repurpose curriculum resources
In short, social networking services can become research networks as well as learning networks
Educators and advocates of new digital literacies are confident that social networking encourages the development of transferable, technical, and social skills of value in formal and informal learning
[63] In a formal learning environment, goals or objectives are determined by an outside department or agency
Tweeting, instant messaging, or blogging enhances student involvement
Students who would not normally participate in class are more apt to partake through social network services
Networking allows participants the opportunity for just-in-time learning and higher levels of engagement
[74] The use of SNSs allow educators to enhance the prescribed curriculum
When learning experiences are infused into a website, students utilize everyday for fun, students realize that learning can and should be a part of everyday life
[citation needed] It does not have to be separate and unattached
[75] Informal learning consists of the learner setting the goals and objectives
It has been claimed that media no longer just influence our culture
They are our culture
[76] With such a high number of users between the ages of 13-18, a number of skills are developed
Participants hone technical skills in choosing to navigate through social networking services
This includes elementary items such as sending an instant message or updating a status
The development of new media skills are paramount in helping youth navigate the digital world with confidence
Social networking services foster learning through what Jenkins (2006) describes as a “Participatory Culture
“[77] A participatory culture consists of a space that allows engagement, sharing, mentoring, and an opportunity for social interaction
Participants of social network services avail of this opportunity
Informal learning, in the forms of participatory and social learning online, is an excellent tool for teachers to sneak in material and ideas that students will identify with and therefore, in a secondary manner, students will learn skills that would normally be taught in a formal setting in the more interesting and engaging environment of social learning
[78] Sites like Twitter provide students with the opportunity to converse and collaborate with others in real time
Social networking services provide a virtual “space” for learners
James Gee (2004) suggests that affinity spaces instantiate participation, collaboration, distribution, dispersion of expertise, and relatedness
[79] Registered users share and search for knowledge which contributes to informal learning
In the past, social networking services were viewed as a distraction and offered no educational benefit
Blocking these social networks was a form of protection for students against wasting time, bullying, and invasions of privacy
In an educational setting, Facebook, for example, is seen by many instructors and educators as a frivolous, time-wasting distraction from schoolwork, and it is not uncommon to be banned in junior high or high school computer labs
[75] Cyberbullying has become an issue of concern with social networking services
According to the UK Children Go Online survey of 9- to 19-year-olds, it was found that a third have received bullying comments online
[80] To avoid this problem, many school districts/boards have blocked access to social networking services such as Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter within the school environment
Social networking services often include a lot of personal information posted publicly, and many believe that sharing personal information is a window into privacy theft
Schools have taken action to protect students from this
It is believed that this outpouring of identifiable information and the easy communication vehicle that social networking services opens the door to sexual predators, cyberbullying, and cyberstalking
[81] In contrast, however, 70% of social media using teens and 85% of adults believe that people are mostly kind to one another on social network sites
[64] Recent research suggests that there has been a shift in blocking the use of social networking services
In many cases, the opposite is occurring as the potential of online networking services is being realized
It has been suggested that if schools block them [social networking services], they’re preventing students from learning the skills they need
[82] Banning social networking […] is not only inappropriate but also borderline irresponsible when it comes to providing the best educational experiences for students
[83] Schools and school districts have the option of educating safe media usage as well as incorporating digital media into the classroom experience, thus preparing students for the literacy they will encounter in the future
A cyberpsychology research study conducted by Australian researchers demonstrated that a number of positive psychological outcomes are related to Facebook use
[84][85] These researchers established that people can derive a sense of social connectedness and belongingness in the online environment
Importantly, this online social connectedness was associated with lower levels of depression and anxiety, and greater levels of subjective well-being
These findings suggest that the nature of online social networking determines the outcomes of online social network use
Social networks are being used by activists as a means of low-cost grassroots organizing
Extensive use of an array of social networking sites enabled organizers of the 2009 National Equality March to mobilize an estimated 200,000 participants to march on Washington with a cost savings of up to 85% per participant over previous methods
[86] The August 2011 England riots were similarly considered to have escalated and been fuelled by this type of grassroots organization
A final rise in social network use is being driven by college students using the services to network with professionals for internship and job opportunities
Many studies have been done on the effectiveness of networking online in a college setting, and one notable one is by Phipps Arabie and Yoram Wind published in Advances in Social Network Analysis
Many schools have implemented online alumni directories which serve as makeshift social networks that current and former students can turn to for career advice
However, these alumni directories tend to suffer from an oversupply of advice-seekers and an undersupply of advice providers
One new social networking service, Ask-a-peer, aims to solve this problem by enabling advice seekers to offer modest compensation to advisers for their time
A social network hosting service is a web hosting service that specifically hosts the user creation of web-based social networking services, alongside related applications
A social trading network is a service that allows traders of financial derivatives such as Contracts for Difference or Foreign Exchange Contracts to share their trading activity via trading profiles online
Such services are created by financial brokers
Few social networks charge money for membership
In part, this may be because social networking is a relatively new service, and the value of using them has not been firmly established in customers’ minds
Companies such as Myspace and Facebook sell online advertising on their site
Their business model is based upon large membership count, and charging for membership would be counterproductive
[88] Some believe that the deeper information that the sites have on each user will allow much better targeted advertising than any other site can currently provide
[89] In recent times, Apple has been critical of the Google and Facebook model, in which users are defined as product and a commodity, and their data being sold for marketing revenue
Social networks operate under an autonomous business model, in which a social network’s members serve dual roles as both the suppliers and the consumers of content
This is in contrast to a traditional business model, where the suppliers and consumers are distinct agents
Revenue is typically gained in the autonomous business model via advertisements, but subscription-based revenue is possible when membership and content levels are sufficiently high
People use social networking sites for meeting new friends, finding old friends, or locating people who have the same problems or interests they have, called niche networking
More and more relationships and friendships are being formed online and then carried to an offline setting
Psychologist and University of Hamburg professor Erich H
Witte says that relationships which start online are much more likely to succeed
Witte has said that in less than 10 years, online dating will be the predominant way for people to start a relationship
[92] One online dating site claims that 2% of all marriages begin at its site, the equivalent of 236 marriages a day
Other sites claim one in five relationships begin online
Users do not necessarily share with others the content which is of most interest to them, but rather that which projects a good impression of themselves
While everyone agrees that social networking has had a significant impact on social interaction, there remains a substantial disagreement as to whether the nature of this impact is completely positive
A number of scholars have done research on the negative effects of internet communication as well
These researchers have contended that this form of communication is an impoverished version of conventional face-to-face social interactions, and therefore produce negative outcomes such as loneliness and depression for users who rely on social networking entirely
By engaging solely in online communication, interactions between communities, families, and other social groups are weakened
Privacy concerns with social networking services have been raised growing concerns among users on the dangers of giving out too much personal information and the threat of sexual predators
Users of these services also need to be aware of data theft or viruses
However, large services, such as Myspace and Netlog, often work with law enforcement to try to prevent such incidents
[citation needed]
In addition, there is a perceived privacy threat in relation to placing too much personal information in the hands of large corporations or governmental bodies, allowing a profile to be produced on an individual’s behavior on which decisions, detrimental to an individual, may be taken
Furthermore, there is an issue over the control of data—information that was altered or removed by the user may in fact be retained and passed to third parties
This danger was highlighted when the controversial social networking site Quechup harvested e-mail addresses from users’ e-mail accounts for use in a spamming operation
Privacy concerns also play an important role in explaining why a lot of employees avoid using their (internal) company social network site
In medical and scientific research, asking subjects for information about their behaviors is normally strictly scrutinized by institutional review boards, for example, to ensure that adolescents and their parents have informed consent
It is not clear whether the same rules apply to researchers who collect data from social networking sites
These sites often contain a great deal of data that is hard to obtain via traditional means
Even though the data are public, republishing it in a research paper might be considered invasion of privacy
Privacy on social networking sites can be undermined by many factors
For example, users may disclose personal information, sites may not take adequate steps to protect user privacy, and third parties frequently use information posted on social networks for a variety of purposes
“For the Net generation, social networking sites have become the preferred forum for social interactions, from posturing and role playing to simply sounding off
However, because such forums are relatively easy to access, posted content can be reviewed by anyone with an interest in the users’ personal information”
Following plans by the UK government to monitor traffic on social networks[102] schemes similar to e-mail jamming have been proposed for networks such as Twitter and Facebook
These would involve “friending” and “following” large numbers of random people to thwart attempts at network analysis
Privacy concerns have been found to differ between users according to gender and personality
Women are less likely to publish information that reveals methods of contacting them
Personality measures openness, extraversion, and conscientiousness were found to positively affect the willingness to disclose data, while neuroticism decreases the willingness to disclose personal information
Through data mining, companies are able to improve their sales and profitability
With this data, companies create customer profiles that contain customer demographics and online behavior
A recent strategy has been the purchase and production of “network analysis software”
This software is able to sort out through the influx of social networking data for any specific company
[104] Facebook has been especially important to marketing strategists
Facebook’s controversial “Social Ads” program gives companies access to the millions of profiles in order to tailor their ads to a Facebook user’s own interests and hobbies
However, rather than sell actual user information, Facebook sells tracked “social actions”
That is, they track the websites a user uses outside of Facebook through a program called Facebook Beacon
There has been a trend for social networking sites to send out only “positive” notifications to users
For example, sites such as Bebo, Facebook, and MySpace will not send notifications to users when they are removed from a person’s friends list
Likewise, Bebo will send out a notification if a user is moved to the top of another user’s friends list but no notification is sent if they are moved down the list
This allows users to purge undesirables from their list extremely easily and often without confrontation since a user will rarely notice if one person disappears from their friends list
It also enforces the general positive atmosphere of the website without drawing attention to unpleasant happenings such as friends falling out, rejection and failed relationships
See also: Unauthorized access in online social networks
Many social networking services, such as Facebook, provide the user with a choice of who can view their profile
This is supposed to prevent unauthorized users from accessing their information
[106] Parents who want to access their child’s MySpace or Facebook account have become a big problem for teenagers who do not want their profile seen by their parents
By making their profile private, teens can select who may see their page, allowing only people added as “friends” to view their profile and preventing unwanted viewing of the profile by parents
Most teens are constantly trying to create a structural barrier between their private life and their parents
To edit information on a certain social networking service account, the social networking sites require you to login or provide a password
This is designed to prevent unauthorized users from adding, changing, or removing personal information, pictures, or other data
Social networking sites have created issues among getting hired for jobs and losing jobs because of exposing inappropriate content
Social networking sites are places on the Internet where users can update their statuses and express their personal opinions about life issues to their friends
This is controversial because employers can access their employee’s profiles, and judge them based on their social behavior
According to Silicon Republic’s statistics, 17,000 young people in six countries were interviewed in a survey
1 in 10 people aged 16 to 34 have been rejected for a job because of comments on an online profile
[108] This shows the effects that social networks have had on people’s lives
There have been numerous cases where employees have lost jobs because their opinions represented their companies negatively
In September 2013, there was a case when a woman got fired over Facebook because she posted disruptive information about her company stating that military patrons should not receive special treatment or discounts
A manager of the company found her opinion online, disagreed with it, and fired her because it completely went against the company’s mission statement
[109] In November 2012 there was a case in which a woman posted a racist remark about the President of the United States and mentioned content about a possible assassination
She lost her job, and was put under investigation by the Secret Service
Not only have employees lost their jobs in the United States, but it has happened with social network users internationally
In April 2011, a Lloyd’s banking group employee in the United Kingdom was fired for making a sarcastic post about the higher salary of her boss in relation to hers
[111] In February 2013 there was another case where a flight attendant working for a Russian airline lost her job because she posted a photo of herself giving the middle finger to a plane full of passengers
The photo went viral exposing it all over the Internet
[112] In November 2009, a woman working for IBM in Quebec, Canada, lost her company’s health insurance benefits because she posted photos displaying her mental health problem
The company decided to cut her benefits because it was costing them additional funds
Cases like these have created some privacy implications as to whether or not companies should have the right to look at employees’ social network profiles
In March 2012, Facebook decided they might take legal action against employers for gaining access to employee’s profiles through their passwords
[114] According to Facebook Chief Privacy Officer for policy, Erin Egan, the company has worked hard to give its users the tools to control who sees their information
He also said users shouldn’t be forced to share private information and communications just to get a job
According to the network’s Statement of Rights and Responsibilities, sharing or soliciting a password is a violation to Facebook
Employees may still give their password information out to get a job, but according to Erin Egan, Facebook will continue to do their part to protect the privacy and security of their users
The relative freedom afforded by social networking services has caused concern regarding the potential of its misuse by individual patrons
In October 2006, a fake MySpace profile created in the name of Josh Evans by Lori Janine Drew led to the suicide of Megan Meier
[116][not in citation given][117] The event incited global concern regarding the use of social networking services for bullying purposes
In July 2008, a Briton, Grant Raphael, was ordered to pay a total of GBP £22,000 (about USD $44,000) for libel and breach of privacy
Raphael had posted a fake page on Facebook purporting to be that of a former schoolfriend Matthew Firsht, with whom Raphael had fallen out in 2000
The page falsely claimed that Firsht was homosexual and that he was dishonest
[citation needed]
At the same time, genuine use of social networking services has been treated with suspicion on the ground of the services’ misuse
In September 2008, the profile of Australian Facebook user Elmo Keep was banned by the site’s administrators on the grounds that it violated the site’s terms of use
Keep is one of several users of Facebook who were banned from the site on the presumption that their names aren’t real, as they bear resemblance to the names of characters like Sesame Street’s Elmo
There are different forms where user data in social networks are accessed and updated without a user’s permission
One study[119] highlighted that the most common incidents included inappropriate comments posted on social networking sites (43%), messages sent to contacts that were never authored (25%) and change of personal details (24%)
The most incidents[120] are carried out by the victim’s friends (36%) or partners (21%) and one in ten victims say their ex-partner has logged into their account without prior consent
[121][122] The survey found that online social network accounts had been subject to unauthorized access in 60 million cases in 2011
Citizens and governments have been concerned with misuse of social networking services by children and teenagers, in particular in relation to online sexual predators
Overuse of social networking may also make children more susceptible to depression and anxiety
A certain number of actions have been engaged by governments to better understand the problem and find some solutions
[specify] A 2008 panel concluded that technological fixes such as age verification and scans are relatively ineffective means of apprehending online predators
[125] In May 2010, a child pornography social networking site with hundreds of members was dismantled by law enforcement
It was deemed “the largest crimes against children case brought anywhere by anyone”
[126] Girls in particular are also known to be at more of a risk online using social networks than boys
According to the article, High Tech or High Risks: Moral Panics About Girls Online, it suggests that young girls are more at risks because they are often represented through “products of play” in transgressive poses because they often manipulate other users online by making themselves look older than what they actually appear which can attract sexual predators
Also, girls are at a higher risk than boys because they are more vulnerable and naive to becoming victims of assault or harassment from any sexual predators online
Many parents of teenage girls worry about their safety online because of the many manipulations there are online and on social networking sites
Social networking can also be a risk to child safety in another way; parents can get addicted to games and neglect their children
One instance in South Korea resulted in the death of a child from starvation
Law enforcement agencies have published articles with their recommendations to parents about their children’s use of social networking sites
A common misuse of social networking sites such as Facebook is that it is occasionally used to emotionally abuse individuals
Such actions are often referred to as trolling
It is not rare for confrontations in the real world to be translated online
[citation needed] Trolling can occur in many different forms, such as (but not limited to) defacement of deceased person(s) tribute pages, name calling, playing online pranks on volatile individuals and controversial comments with the intention to cause anger and cause arguments
Online bullying, also called cyber-bullying, is a relatively common occurrence and it can often result in emotional trauma for the victim
Depending on the networking outlet, up to 39% of users admit to being “cyber-bullied”
[131] In her article, “Why Youth (Heart) Social Network Sites”, danah boyd, a researcher of social networks, quotes a teenager
The teenager expresses frustration towards networking sites like MySpace because it causes drama and too much emotional stress
[132] There are not many limitations as to what individuals can post when online
Individuals are given the power to post offensive remarks or pictures that could potentially cause a great amount of emotional pain for another individual
Interpersonal communication has been a growing issue as more and more people have turned to social networking as a means of communication
“Benniger (1987) describes how mass media has gradually replaced interpersonal communication as a socializing force
Further, social networking sites have become popular sites for youth culture to explore themselves, relationships, and share cultural artifacts”
Many teens and social networking users may be harming their interpersonal communication by using sites such as Facebook and MySpace
Stated by Baroness Greenfield, an Oxford University neuroscientist, “My fear is that these technologies are infantilizing the brain into the state of small children who are attracted by buzzing noises and bright lights, who have a small attention span and who live for the moment”
The convenience that social network sites give users to communicate with one another can also damage their interpersonal communication
Sherry Turkle, the founder and director of the MIT Initiative on Technology and Self, stated, “Networked, we are together, but so lessened are our expectations of each other that we feel utterly alone
And there is the risk that we come to see others as objects to be accessed–and only for the parts we find useful, comforting, or amusing”
[135] Furthermore, social network sites can create insincere friendships, Turkle also noted, “They nurture friendships on social-networking sites and then wonder if they are among friends
They become confused about companionship”
As social networking sites have risen in popularity over the past years, people have been spending an excessive amount of time on the Internet in general and social networking sites in specific
This has led researchers to debate the establishment of Internet addiction as an actual clinical disorder
[137] Social networking can also affect the extent to which a person feels lonely
In a Newsweek article, Johannah Cornblatt explains “Social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace may provide people with a false sense of connection that ultimately increases loneliness in people who feel alone
Cacioppo, a neuroscientist at the University of Chicago, claims that social networking can foster feelings of sensitivity to disconnection, which can lead to loneliness
[138] Fabio Sabatini and Francesco Sarracino found that if an individual tends to (a) trust people and (b) have a significant number of face-to-face interactions, the individual is likely to assess their own well-being as relatively high
The researchers found that online social networking plays a positive role in subjective well-being when the networking is used to facilitate physical interactions, but networking activities that do not facilitate face-to-face interactions tend to erode trust, and this erosion can then negatively affect subjective well-being (independent of the online social interaction itself)
Sabatini and Sarracino conclude that “The overall effect of networking on individual welfare is significantly negative
“[139] However, some scholars have expressed that concerns about social networking are often exaggerated and poorly researched
There has been rapid growth in the number of U
patent applications that cover new technologies related to social networking
The number of published applications has been growing rapidly since 2003
There are now over 3,500 published applications
As many as 7,000 applications may be currently on file including those that haven’t been published yet
[141] Only about 400 of these applications have issued as patents,[142] however, due largely to the multi-year backlog in examination of business method patents and the difficulty in getting these patent applications allowed
It has been reported that social networking patents are important for the establishment of new start-up companies
[144] It has also been reported, however, that social networking patents inhibit innovation
[145] On June 15, 2010, the United States Patent and Trademark Office awarded Amazon
com a patent for a “Social Networking System” based on its ownership of PlanetAll
[146] The patent describes a Social Networking System as
A networked computer system provides various services for assisting users in locating, and establishing contact relationships with, other users
For example, in one embodiment, users can identify other users based on their affiliations with particular schools or other organizations
The system also provides a mechanism for a user to selectively establish contact relationships or connections with other users, and to grant permissions for such other users to view personal information of the user
The system may also include features for enabling users to identify contacts of their respective contacts
In addition, the system may automatically notify users of personal information updates made by their respective contacts
The patent has garnered attention due to its similarity to the popular social networking site Facebook
What types of speech workers are protected from being fired for on social networking websites has been an issue for American companies with over 100 complaints as of 2011 on this topic having been made to the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)
[149] The National Labor Relations Act protects workers from being fired for “protected concerted activity”, which prevents workers from being fired for collective action, while allowing companies the right to fire workers for individual actions they take against the company
[149] Companies are concerned with the potential damage comments online can do to public image due to their visibility and accessibility, but despite over 100 cases being presented thus far to NLRB only one has led to a formal ruling, leaving uncertainty as to the boundaries of what types of speech the NLRB will ultimately protect or condemn
Most of the existing SNS sites use one or multiple dedicated data centers to serve all its users
Such infrastructure-based systems faces over-provisioning during non-peak hours, while may encounter service outage during peak hours, due to the highly dynamic of SNS users’ activities
There are several proposals, leveraging a decentralized architecture to ensure the scalability of SNS sites with low infrastructure cost
These proposals include Fethr,[150] uaOSN,[151] and Cuckoo
There is a growing number of social network users who decide to quit their user account by committing a so-called virtual identity suicide or Web 2
A 2013 study in the journal CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking investigated this phenomenon from the perspective of Facebook users
The number one reason for these users was privacy concerns (48%), being followed by a general dissatisfaction with the social networking website (14%), negative aspects regarding social network friends (13%) and the feeling of getting addicted to the social networking website (6%)
Facebook quitters were found to be more concerned about privacy, more addicted to the Internet and more conscientious
Sites such as Facebook are becoming increasingly popular tools for methods of ending relationships, proving that although new media is being used as a tool for connecting with individuals, it is now creating new problems associated with disconnecting from others
[154] Instead of the traditional phone call or face-to-face interaction between individuals, people are now starting to end relationships by simply changing their relationship status, knowing full well that their significant other will see it shortly
The problem with that is that you are left with no closure and the entire online world now knows you are no longer in a relationship
[155] In a 2010 study conducted online, nearly one-quarter of the 1,000 individuals surveyed found out that their own relationship was over by seeing it on Facebook
[156] New media websites have made our private lives much more public, especially when it comes to breaking up, since updates are able to be immediately viewed by everyone in our networks (which tend to be more people than we would normally tell personally); for example, having friends comment on your newly changed “single” relationship status, and having to explain what happened can be distressing
This creates further problems, as it is even more crucial to ‘save face’ after one’s relationship has been broken when one is connected to new media technologies
Erving Goffman argues that all social life boils down to face-to-face interactions
These interpersonal interactions are mediated by what Goffman terms as “face-work”, which are the actions undertaken to maintain consistency with one’s face, and to uphold the expressive order of social situations
Individuals attempt to keep a positive image of the self when interacting with others, and in order to do so, they may have to alter their appearance or manner in some way
[157] Such face-work can also be seen in new technologies, especially social media websites such as Facebook
If someone breaks up with you, you can actively choose what “face” you want to present to your friends, including your ex
You can choose to either post sad updates, which is the most natural thing you would want to do, or you can “save face” by posting happy updates and pictures of you going out with your friends
Even though you may be absolutely heartbroken within, Facebook allows you to hide your true feelings from the online world, and from your ex, by manipulating your profile
New media is being utilized as a tool for helping users present a desirable image of themselves, enabling them to save face in difficult situations
Nearly 35% of respondents in a study admitted to using their Facebook status to make someone think that they had plans, even if they did not
Many people find that the only way to really move on from a past relationship is to cut the person out of their life completely
Social media has made this process much more complicated and difficult
In a 2012 study, 48% of the participants stated they had remained friends with their ex on Facebook, and of these people, 88% stated they ‘creeped’ their ex after the breakup
Many digital social networking sites leave behind a trail of a user’s interactions,[158] so deleting content may be an arduous process, more difficult than simply burning or throwing away an entire box of letters, photos, and mementos
[159] Additionally, this content can still remain online
The increasing number of messages and social relationships embedded in SNS also increases the amount of social information demanding a reaction from SNS users
Consequently, SNS users perceive they are giving too much social support to other SNS friends
This dark side of SNS usage is called ‘social overload’
[160] It is caused by the extent of usage, number of friends, subjective social support norms, and type of relationship (online-only vs offline friends) while age has only an indirect effect
The psychological and behavioral consequences of social overload include perceptions of SNS exhaustion, low user satisfaction, and high intentions to reduce or stop using SNS
Social networking services are increasingly being used in legal and criminal investigations
Information posted on sites such as MySpace and Facebook has been used by police (forensic profiling), probation, and university officials to prosecute users of said sites
In some situations, content posted on MySpace has been used in court
Facebook is increasingly being used by school administrations and law enforcement agencies as a source of evidence against student users
This site being the number one online destination for college students, allows users to create profile pages with personal details
These pages can be viewed by other registered users from the same school, which often include resident assistants and campus police who have signed up for the service
[162] One UK police force has sifted pictures from Facebook and arrested some people who had been photographed in a public place holding a weapon such as a knife (having a weapon in a public place is illegal)
Social networking is more recently being used by various government agencies
Social networking tools serve as a quick and easy way for the government to get the opinion of the public and to keep the public updated on their activity, however this comes with a significant risk of abuse, for example to cultivate a culture of fear such as that outlined in Nineteen Eighty-Four or THX-1138
The Centers for Disease Control demonstrated the importance of vaccinations on the popular children’s site Whyville and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration has a virtual island on Second Life where people can explore underground caves or explore the effects of global warming
[164] Likewise, NASA has taken advantage of a few social networking tools, including Twitter and Flickr
The NSA is taking advantage of them all
[165] NASA is using such tools to aid the Review of U
Human Space Flight Plans Committee, whose goal it is to ensure that the nation is on a vigorous and sustainable path to achieving its boldest aspirations in space
The use of social networking services in an enterprise context presents the potential of having a major impact on the world of business and work (Fraser & Dutta 2008)
Social networks connect people at low cost; this can be beneficial for entrepreneurs and small businesses looking to expand their contact bases
These networks often act as a customer relationship management tool for companies selling products and services
Companies can also use social networks for advertising in the form of banners and text ads
Since businesses operate globally, social networks can make it easier to keep in touch with contacts around the world
Applications for social networking sites have extended toward businesses and brands are creating their own, high functioning sites, a sector known as brand networking
It is the idea that a brand can build its consumer relationship by connecting their consumers to the brand image on a platform that provides them relative content, elements of participation, and a ranking or score system
Brand networking is a new way to capitalize on social trends as a marketing tool
The power of social networks it beginning to permeate into internal culture of businesses where they are finding uses for collaboration, file sharing and knowledge transfer
The term “enterprise social software” is becoming increasingly popular for these types of applications
Many social networks provide an online environment for people to communicate and exchange personal information for dating purposes
Intentions can vary from looking for a one time date, short-term relationships, and long-term relationships
Most of these social networks, just like online dating services, require users to give out certain pieces of information
This usually includes a user’s age, gender, location, interests, and perhaps a picture
Releasing very personal information is usually discouraged for safety reasons
[168] This allows other users to search or be searched by some sort of criteria, but at the same time people can maintain a degree of anonymity similar to most online dating services
Online dating sites are similar to social networks in the sense that users create profiles to meet and communicate with others, but their activities on such sites are for the sole purpose of finding a person of interest to date
Social networks do not necessarily have to be for dating; many users simply use it for keeping in touch with friends, and colleagues
However, an important difference between social networks and online dating services is the fact that online dating sites usually require a fee, where social networks are free
[170] This difference is one of the reasons the online dating industry is seeing a massive decrease in revenue due to many users opting to use social networking services instead
Many popular online dating services such as Match
com, Yahoo Personals, and eHarmony
com are seeing a decrease in users, where social networks like MySpace and Facebook are experiencing an increase in users
The number of Internet users in the United States that visit online dating sites has fallen from a peak of 21% in 2003 to 10% in 2006
[172] Whether it is the cost of the services, the variety of users with different intentions, or any other reason, it is undeniable that social networking sites are quickly becoming the new way to find dates online
The National School Boards Association reports that almost 60% of students who use social networking talk about education topics online, and more than 50% talk specifically about schoolwork
Yet the vast majority of school districts have stringent rules against nearly all forms of social networking during the school day—even though students and parents report few problem behaviors online
Social networks focused on supporting relationships between teachers and their students are now used for learning, educator professional development, and content sharing
HASTAC is a collaborative social network space for new modes of learning and research in higher education, K-12, and lifelong learning; Ning supports teachers; TermWiki, Learn Central,[173] TeachStreet and other sites are being built to foster relationships that include educational blogs, eportfolios, formal and ad hoc communities, as well as communication such as chats, discussion threads, and synchronous forums
These sites also have content sharing and rating features
Social networks are also emerging as online yearbooks, both public and private
One such service is MyYearbook, which allows anyone from the general public to register and connect
A new trend emerging is private label yearbooks accessible only by students, parents, and teachers of a particular school, similar to Facebook’s beginning within Harvard
[citation needed]
The use of virtual currency systems inside social networks create new opportunities for global finance
Hub Culture operates a virtual currency Ven used for global transactions among members, product sales[174] and financial trades in commodities and carbon credits
[175][176] In May 2010, carbon pricing contracts were introduced to the weighted basket of currencies and commodities that determine the floating exchange value of Ven
The introduction of carbon to the calculation price of the currency made Ven the first and only currency that is linked to the environment
Social networks are beginning to be adopted by healthcare professionals as a means to manage institutional knowledge, disseminate peer to peer knowledge and to highlight individual physicians and institutions
The advantage of using a dedicated medical social networking site is that all the members are screened against the state licensing board list of practitioners
A new trend is emerging with social networks created to help its members with various physical and mental ailments
[179] For people suffering from life altering diseases, PatientsLikeMe offers its members the chance to connect with others dealing with similar issues and research patient data related to their condition
For alcoholics and addicts, SoberCircle gives people in recovery the ability to communicate with one another and strengthen their recovery through the encouragement of others who can relate to their situation
DailyStrength is also a website that offers support groups for a wide array of topics and conditions, including the support topics offered by PatientsLikeMe and SoberCircle
Some social networks aim to encourage healthy lifestyles in their users
SparkPeople offers community and social networking tools for peer support during weight loss
Fitocracy and QUENTIQ are focused on exercise, enabling users to share their own workouts and comment on those of other users
Social networking sites have recently showed a value in social and political movements
[180] In the Egyptian revolution, Facebook and Twitter both played an allegedly pivotal role in keeping people connected to the revolt
Egyptian activists have credited social networking sites with providing a platform for planning protest and sharing news from Tahrir Square in real time
By presenting a platform for thousands of people to instantaneously share videos of mainly events featuring brutality, social networking can be a vital tool in revolutions
[181] On the flip side, social networks enable government authorities to easily identify, and repress, protestors and dissidents
[citation needed]
Crowdsourcing social media platform, such as Design Contest, Arcbazar, Tongal, combined group of professional freelancers, such as designers, and help them communicate with business owners interested in their suggestion
This process is often used to subdivide tedious work or to fund-raise startup companies and charities, and can also occur offline
There are a number of projects that aim to develop free and open source software to use for social networking services
The projects include Anahita,[183] Diaspora, Appleseed Project,[184] OneSocialWeb,[185] Kune, Friendica and GNU social
These technologies are often referred to as Social engine or Social networking engine software
According to ComScore, up to the end of November 2011, the following top social networking websites that the listed number of unique visitors:[186]

How to get lots of traffic without spending any money

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James Marshall “Jimi” Hendrix (born Johnny Allen Hendrix; November 27, 1942 – September 18, 1970) was an American rock guitarist, singer, and songwriter
Although his mainstream career spanned only four years, he is widely regarded as one of the most influential electric guitarists in the history of popular music, and one of the most celebrated musicians of the 20th century
The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame describes him as “arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music”
Born in Seattle, Washington, Hendrix began playing guitar at the age of 15
In 1961, he enlisted in the US Army and trained as a paratrooper in the 101st Airborne Division; he was granted an honorable discharge the following year
Soon afterward, he moved to Clarksville, Tennessee, and began playing gigs on the chitlin’ circuit, earning a place in the Isley Brothers’ backing band and later with Little Richard, with whom he continued to work through mid-1965
He then played with Curtis Knight and the Squires before moving to England in late 1966 after being discovered by Linda Keith, who in turn interested bassist Chas Chandler of the Animals in becoming his first manager
Within months, Hendrix had earned three UK top ten hits with the Jimi Hendrix Experience: “Hey Joe”, “Purple Haze”, and “The Wind Cries Mary”
He achieved fame in the US after his performance at the Monterey Pop Festival in 1967, and in 1968 his third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, reached number one in the US; it was Hendrix’s most commercially successful release and his first and only number one album
The world’s highest-paid performer, he headlined the Woodstock Festival in 1969 and the Isle of Wight Festival in 1970 before his accidental death from barbiturate-related asphyxia on September 18, 1970, at the age of 27
Hendrix was inspired musically by American rock and roll and electric blues
He favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain, and was instrumental in utilizing the previously undesirable sounds caused by guitar amplifier feedback
He helped to popularize the use of a wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock, and was the first artist to use stereophonic phasing effects in music recordings
Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: “Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source
Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began
Hendrix was the recipient of several music awards during his lifetime and posthumously
In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year, and in 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year
Disc and Music Echo honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year
The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005
Rolling Stone ranked the band’s three studio albums, Are You Experienced, Axis: Bold as Love, and Electric Ladyland, among the 100 greatest albums of all time, and they ranked Hendrix as the greatest guitarist and the sixth greatest artist of all time
Jimi Hendrix was primarily of African-American descent
[3][4] His paternal grandmother, Zenora “Nora” Rose Moore, was one-quarter Cherokee
[5][nb 1] Hendrix’s paternal grandfather, Bertran Philander Ross Hendrix (born 1866), was the result of an extramarital affair between a black woman named Fanny, and a grain merchant from Urbana, Ohio or Illinois, one of the wealthiest white men in the area at that time
[7][8][nb 2] On June 10, 1919, Hendrix and Moore had a son they named James Allen Ross Hendrix; people called him Al
In 1941, Al met Lucille Jeter (1925–1958) at a dance in Seattle; they married on March 31, 1942
[11] Al, who had been drafted by the U
Army to serve in World War II, left to begin his basic training three days after the wedding
[12] Johnny Allen Hendrix was born on November 27, 1942, in Seattle, Washington; he was the first of Lucille’s five children
In 1946, Johnny’s parents changed his name to James Marshall Hendrix, in honor of Al and his late brother Leon Marshall
Stationed in Alabama at the time of Hendrix’s birth, Al was denied the standard military furlough afforded servicemen for childbirth; his commanding officer placed him in the stockade to prevent him from going AWOL to see his infant son in Seattle
He spent two months locked up without trial, and while in the stockade received a telegram announcing his son’s birth
[15][nb 4] During Al’s three-year absence, Lucille struggled to raise their son
[17] When Al was away, Hendrix was mostly cared for by family members and friends, especially Lucille’s sister Delores Hall and her friend Dorothy Harding
[18] Al received an honorable discharge from the US Army on September 1, 1945
Two months later, unable to find Lucille, Al went to the Berkeley, California home of a family friend named Mrs
Champ, who had taken care of and had attempted to adopt Hendrix; this is where Al saw his son for the first time
After returning from service, Al reunited with Lucille, but his inability to find steady work left the family impoverished
They both struggled with alcohol, and often fought when intoxicated
The violence sometimes drove Hendrix to withdraw and hide in a closet in their home
[20] His relationship with his brother Leon (born 1948) was close but precarious; with Leon in and out of foster care, they lived with an almost constant threat of fraternal separation
[21] In addition to Leon, Hendrix had three younger siblings: Joseph, born in 1949, Kathy in 1950, and Pamela, 1951, all of whom Al and Lucille gave up to foster care and adoption
[22] The family frequently moved, staying in cheap hotels and apartments around Seattle
On occasion, family members would take Hendrix to Vancouver to stay at his grandmother’s
A shy and sensitive boy, he was deeply affected by his life experiences
[23] In later years, he confided to a girlfriend that he had been the victim of sexual abuse by a man in uniform
[24] On December 17, 1951, when Hendrix was nine years old, his parents divorced; the court granted Al custody of him and Leon
At Horace Mann Elementary School in Seattle during the mid-1950s, Hendrix’s habit of carrying a broom with him to emulate a guitar gained the attention of the school’s social worker
After more than a year of his clinging to a broom like a security blanket, she wrote a letter requesting school funding intended for underprivileged children, insisting that leaving him without a guitar might result in psychological damage
[26] Her efforts failed, and Al refused to buy him a guitar
In 1957, while helping his father with a side-job, Hendrix found a ukulele amongst the garbage that they were removing from an older woman’s home
She told him that he could keep the instrument, which had only one string
[28] Learning by ear, he played single notes, following along to Elvis Presley songs, particularly Presley’s cover of Leiber and Stoller’s “Hound Dog”
[29][nb 6] By the age of thirty-three, Hendrix’s mother Lucille had developed cirrhosis of the liver, and on February 2, 1958, she died when her spleen ruptured
[31] Al refused to take James and Leon to attend their mother’s funeral; he instead gave them shots of whiskey and instructed them that was how men were supposed to deal with loss
[31][nb 7] In mid-1958, at age 15, Hendrix acquired his first acoustic guitar, for $5
[32] He earnestly applied himself, playing the instrument for several hours daily, watching others and getting tips from more experienced guitarists, and listening to blues artists such as Muddy Waters, B
King, Howlin’ Wolf, and Robert Johnson
[33] The first tune Hendrix learned how to play was the theme from Peter Gunn
Soon after he acquired the acoustic guitar, Hendrix formed his first band, the Velvetones
Without an electric guitar, he could barely be heard over the sound of the group
After about three months, he realized that he needed an electric guitar in order to continue
[35] In mid-1959, his father relented and bought him a white Supro Ozark
[35] Hendrix’s first gig was with an unnamed band in the basement of a synagogue, Seattle’s Temple De Hirsch, but after too much showing off, the band fired him between sets
[36] He later joined the Rocking Kings, which played professionally at venues such as the Birdland club
When someone stole his guitar after he left it backstage overnight, Al bought him a red Silvertone Danelectro
[37] In 1958, Hendrix completed his studies at Washington Junior High School, though he did not graduate from Garfield High School
Before Hendrix was 19 years old, law enforcement authorities had twice caught him riding in stolen cars
When given a choice between spending time in prison or joining the Army, he chose the latter and enlisted on May 31, 1961
[41] After completing eight weeks of basic training at Fort Ord, California, he was assigned to the 101st Airborne Division and stationed at Fort Campbell, Kentucky
[42] He arrived there on November 8, and soon afterward he wrote to his father: “There’s nothing but physical training and harassment here for two weeks, then when you go to jump school 
you get hell
They work you to death, fussing and fighting
“[43] In his next letter home, Hendrix, who had left his guitar at his girlfriend Betty Jean Morgan’s house in Seattle, asked his father to send it to him as soon as possible, stating: “I really need it now
“[43] His father obliged and sent the red Silvertone Danelectro on which Hendrix had hand-painted the words “Betty Jean”, to Fort Campbell
[44] His apparent obsession with the instrument contributed to his neglect of his duties, which led to verbal taunting and physical abuse from his peers, who at least once hid the guitar from him until he had begged for its return
In November 1961, fellow serviceman Billy Cox walked past an army club and heard Hendrix playing guitar
[46] Intrigued by the proficient playing, which he described as a combination of “John Lee Hooker and Beethoven”, Cox borrowed a bass guitar and the two jammed
[47] Within a few weeks, they began performing at base clubs on the weekends with other musicians in a loosely organized band called the Casuals
Hendrix completed his paratrooper training in just over eight months, and Major General C
Rich awarded him the prestigious Screaming Eagles patch on January 11, 1962
[43] By February, his personal conduct had begun to draw criticism from his superiors
They labeled him an unqualified marksman and often caught him napping while on duty and failing to report for bed checks
[49] On May 24, Hendrix’s platoon sergeant, James C
Spears, filed a report in which he stated: “He has no interest whatsoever in the Army 
It is my opinion that Private Hendrix will never come up to the standards required of a soldier
I feel that the military service will benefit if he is discharged as soon as possible
“[50] On June 29, 1962, Captain Gilbert Batchman granted Hendrix an honorable discharge on the basis of unsuitability
[51] Hendrix later spoke of his dislike of the army and falsely stated that he had received a medical discharge after breaking his ankle during his 26th parachute jump
In September 1963, after Cox was discharged from the Army, he and Hendrix moved to Clarksville, Tennessee and formed a band called the King Kasuals
[54] Hendrix had watched Butch Snipes play with his teeth in Seattle and by now Alphonso ‘Baby Boo’ Young, the other guitarist in the band, was performing this guitar gimmick
[55] Not to be upstaged, Hendrix learned to play with his teeth
He later commented: “The idea of doing that came to me
in Tennessee
Down there you have to play with your teeth or else you get shot
There’s a trail of broken teeth all over the stage
“[56] Although they began playing low-paying gigs at obscure venues, the band eventually moved to Nashville’s Jefferson Street, which was the traditional heart of the city’s black community and home to a thriving rhythm and blues music scene
[57] They earned a brief residency playing at a popular venue in town, the Club del Morocco, and for the next two years Hendrix made a living performing at a circuit of venues throughout the South who were affiliated with the Theater Owners’ Booking Association (TOBA), widely known as the Chitlin’ Circuit
[58] In addition to playing in his own band, Hendrix performed as a backing musician for various soul, R&B, and blues musicians, including Wilson Pickett, Slim Harpo, Sam Cooke, and Jackie Wilson
In January 1964, feeling he had outgrown the circuit artistically and frustrated by having to follow the rules of bandleaders, Hendrix decided to venture out on his own
He moved into the Hotel Theresa in Harlem, where he befriended Lithofayne Pridgon, known as “Faye”, who became his girlfriend
[60] A Harlem native with connections throughout the area’s music scene, Pridgon provided him with shelter, support, and encouragement
[61] Hendrix also met the Allen twins, Arthur and Albert
[62][nb 10] In February 1964, Hendrix won first prize in the Apollo Theater amateur contest
[64] Hoping to secure a career opportunity, he played the Harlem club circuit and sat in with various bands
At the recommendation of a former associate of Joe Tex, Ronnie Isley granted Hendrix an audition that led to an offer to become the guitarist with the Isley Brothers’ back-up band, the I
Specials, which he readily accepted
In March 1964, Hendrix recorded the two-part single “Testify” with the Isley Brothers
Released in June, it failed to chart
[66] In May, he provided guitar instrumentation for the Don Covay song, “Mercy Mercy”
Issued in August by Rosemart Records and distributed by Atlantic, the track reached number 35 on the Billboard chart
Hendrix toured with the Isleys during much of 1964, but near the end of October, after growing tired of playing the same set every night, he left the band
[68][nb 11] Soon afterward, Hendrix joined Little Richard’s touring band, the Upsetters
[70] During a stop in Los Angeles in February 1965, he recorded his first and only single with Richard, “I Don’t Know What You Got (But It’s Got Me)”, written by Don Covay and released by Vee-Jay Records
[71] Richard’s popularity was waning at the time, and the single peaked at number 92, where it remained for one week before dropping off the chart
[72][nb 12] Hendrix met singer Rosa Lee Brooks while staying at the Wilcox Hotel in Hollywood, and she invited him to participate in a recording session for her single, which included “My Diary” as the A-side, and “Utee” as the B-side
[74] He played guitar on both tracks, which also included background vocals by Arthur Lee
The single failed to chart, but Hendrix and Lee began a friendship that lasted several years; Hendrix later became an ardent supporter of Lee’s band, Love
In July 1965, on Nashville’s Channel 5 Night Train, Hendrix made his first television appearance
Performing in Little Richard’s ensemble band, he backed up vocalists Buddy and Stacy on “Shotgun”
The video recording of the show marks the earliest known footage of Hendrix performing
[70] Richard and Hendrix often clashed over tardiness, wardrobe, and Hendrix’s stage antics, and in late July, Richard’s brother Robert fired him
[75] He then briefly rejoined the Isley Brothers, and recorded a second single with them, “Move Over and Let Me Dance” backed with “Have You Ever Been Disappointed”
[76] Later that year, he joined a New York-based R&B band, Curtis Knight and the Squires, after meeting Knight in the lobby of a hotel where both men were staying
[77] Hendrix performed with them for eight months
[78] In October 1965, he and Knight recorded the single, “How Would You Feel” backed with “Welcome Home” and on October 15, Hendrix signed a three-year recording contract with entrepreneur Ed Chalpin
[79] While the relationship with Chalpin was short-lived, his contract remained in force, which later caused legal and career problems for Hendrix
[80][nb 13] During his time with Knight, Hendrix briefly toured with Joey Dee and the Starliters, and worked with King Curtis on several recordings including Ray Sharpe’s two-part single, “Help Me”
[82] Hendrix earned his first composer credits for two instrumentals, “Hornets Nest” and “Knock Yourself Out”, released as a Curtis Knight and the Squires single in 1966
[83][nb 14]
Feeling restricted by his experiences as an R&B sideman, Hendrix moved to New York City’s Greenwich Village in 1966, which had a vibrant and diverse music scene
[88] There, he was offered a residency at the Cafe Wha? on MacDougal Street and formed his own band that June, Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, which included future Spirit guitarist Randy California
[89][nb 15] The Blue Flames played at several clubs in New York and Hendrix began developing his guitar style and material that he would soon use with the Experience
[91][92] In September, they gave some of their last concerts at the Cafe au Go Go, as John Hammond Jr
‘s backing group
[93][nb 16]
By May 1966, Hendrix was struggling to earn a living wage playing the R&B circuit, so he briefly rejoined Curtis Knight and the Squires for an engagement at one of New York City’s most popular nightspots, the Cheetah Club
[94] During a performance, Linda Keith, the girlfriend of Rolling Stones guitarist Keith Richards, noticed Hendrix
She remembered: “[His] playing mesmerised me”
[94] She invited him to join her for a drink; he accepted and the two became friends
While he was playing with Jimmy James and the Blue Flames, Keith recommended Hendrix to Stones manager Andrew Loog Oldham and producer Seymour Stein
They failed to see Hendrix’s musical potential, and rejected him
[95] She then referred him to Chas Chandler, who was leaving the Animals and interested in managing and producing artists
Chandler liked the Billy Roberts song “Hey Joe”, and was convinced he could create a hit single with the right artist
[96] Impressed with Hendrix’s version of the song, he brought him to London on September 24, 1966,[97] and signed him to a management and production contract with himself and ex-Animals manager Michael Jeffery
[98] On September 24, Hendrix gave an impromptu solo performance at the Scotch-Club, and later that night he began a relationship with Kathy Etchingham that lasted for two and a half years
[99][nb 17]
Following Hendrix’s arrival in London, Chandler began recruiting members for a band designed to highlight the guitarist’s talents, the Jimi Hendrix Experience
[101] Hendrix met guitarist Noel Redding at an audition for the New Animals, where Redding’s knowledge of blues progressions impressed Hendrix, who stated that he also liked Redding’s hairstyle
[102] Chandler asked Redding if he wanted to play bass guitar in Hendrix’s band; Redding agreed
[102] Chandler then began looking for a drummer and soon after, he contacted Mitch Mitchell through a mutual friend
Mitchell, who had recently been fired from Georgie Fame and the Blue Flames, participated in a rehearsal with Redding and Hendrix where they found common ground in their shared interest in rhythm and blues
When Chandler phoned Mitchell later that day to offer him the position, he readily accepted
[103] Chandler also convinced Hendrix to change the spelling of his first name from Jimmy to the exotic looking Jimi
On September 30, Chandler brought Hendrix to the London Polytechnic at Regent Street, where Cream was scheduled to perform, and where Hendrix and Eric Clapton met
Clapton later commented: “He asked if he could play a couple of numbers
I said, ‘Of course’, but I had a funny feeling about him
“[101] Halfway through Cream’s set, Hendrix took the stage and performed a frantic version of the Howlin’ Wolf song “Killing Floor”
[101] In 1989, Clapton described the performance: “He played just about every style you could think of, and not in a flashy way
I mean he did a few of his tricks, like playing with his teeth and behind his back, but it wasn’t in an upstaging sense at all, and that was it 
He walked off, and my life was never the same again”
In mid-October 1966, Chandler arranged an engagement for the Experience as Johnny Hallyday’s supporting act during a brief tour of France
[104] Thus, the Jimi Hendrix Experience performed their very first show on October 13, 1966, at the Novelty in Evreux
[105] Their enthusiastically received 15-minute performance at the Olympia theatre in Paris on October 18 marks the earliest known recording of the band
[104] In late October, Kit Lambert and Chris Stamp, managers of the Who, signed the Experience to their newly formed label, Track Records, which released the Experience’s first single on October 23
[106] “Hey Joe”, which included a female chorus provided by the Breakaways, was backed by Hendrix’s first songwriting effort after arriving in England, “Stone Free”
In mid-November, they performed at the Bag O’Nails nightclub in London, with Clapton, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend, Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, and Kevin Ayers in attendance
[108] Ayers described the crowd’s reaction as stunned disbelief: “All the stars were there, and I heard serious comments, you know ‘shit’, ‘Jesus’, ‘damn’ and other words worse than that
“[108] The successful performance earned Hendrix his first interview, published in Record Mirror with the headline: “Mr
[108] “Now hear this 
we predict that [Hendrix] is going to whirl around the business like a tornado”, wrote Bill Harry, who asked the rhetorical question: “Is that full, big, swinging sound really being created by only three people?”[109] Hendrix commented: “We don’t want to be classed in any category 
If it must have a tag, I’d like it to be called, ‘Free Feeling’
It’s a mixture of rock, freak-out, rave and blues”
[110] After appearances on the UK television shows Ready Steady Go! and the Top of the Pops, “Hey Joe” entered the UK charts on December 29, 1966, peaking at number six
[111] Further success came in March 1967 with the UK number three hit “Purple Haze”, and in May with “The Wind Cries Mary”, which remained on the UK charts for eleven weeks, peaking at number six
On March 31, 1967, while the Experience waited to perform at the London Astoria, Hendrix and Chandler discussed ways in which they could increase the band’s media exposure
When Chandler asked journalist Keith Altham for advice, Altham suggested that they needed to do something more dramatic than the stage show of the Who, which involved the smashing of instruments
Hendrix joked: “Maybe I can smash up an elephant”, to which Altham replied: “Well, it’s a pity you can’t set fire to your guitar”
[113] Chandler then asked road manager Gerry Stickells to procure some lighter fluid
During the show, Hendrix gave an especially dynamic performance before setting his guitar on fire at the end of a 45-minute set
In the wake of the stunt, members of London’s press labeled Hendrix the “Black Elvis” and the “Wild Man of Borneo”
[114][nb 18]
After the moderate UK chart success of their first two singles, “Hey Joe” and “Purple Haze”, the Experience began assembling material for a full-length LP
[116] Recording began at De Lane Lea Studios and later moved to the prestigious Olympic Studios
[116] The album, Are You Experienced, features a diversity of musical styles, including blues tracks such as “Red House” and “Highway Chile”, and the R&B song “Remember”
[117] It also included the experimental science fiction piece, “Third Stone from the Sun” and the post-modern soundscapes of the title track, with prominent backwards guitar and drums
[118] “I Don’t Live Today” served as a medium for Hendrix’s guitar feedback improvisation and “Fire” was driven by Mitchell’s drumming
Released in the UK on May 12, 1967, Are You Experienced spent 33 weeks on the charts, peaking at number two
[119][nb 19] It was prevented from reaching the top spot by the Beatles’ Sgt
Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band
[121][nb 20] On June 4, 1967, Hendrix opened a show at the Saville Theatre in London with his rendition of Sgt
Pepper’s title track, which was released just three days previous
Beatles manager Brian Epstein owned the Saville at the time, and both George Harrison and Paul McCartney attended the performance
McCartney described the moment: “The curtains flew back and he came walking forward playing ‘Sgt
It’s a pretty major compliment in anyone’s book
I put that down as one of the great honors of my career
“[122] Released in the U
on August 23 by Reprise Records, Are You Experienced reached number five on the Billboard 200
[123][nb 21]
In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World magazine, described Are You Experienced as “the album that shook the world 
leaving it forever changed”
[125][nb 22] In 2005, Rolling Stone called the double-platinum LP Hendrix’s “epochal debut”, and they ranked it the 15th greatest album of all time, noting his “exploitation of amp howl”, and characterizing his guitar playing as “incendiary 
historic in itself”
Although popular in Europe at the time, the Experience’s first U
single, “Hey Joe”, failed to reach the Billboard Hot 100 chart upon its release on May 1, 1967
[129] The group’s fortunes improved when McCartney recommended them to the organizers of the Monterey Pop Festival
He insisted that the event would be incomplete without Hendrix, whom he called “an absolute ace on the guitar”, and he agreed to join the board of organizers on the condition that the Experience perform at the festival in mid-June
Introduced by Brian Jones as “the most exciting performer [he had] ever heard”, Hendrix opened with a fast arrangement of Howlin’ Wolf’s song “Killing Floor”, wearing what author Keith Shadwick described as “clothes as exotic as any on display elsewhere
“[131] Shadwick wrote: “[Hendrix] was not only something utterly new musically, but an entirely original vision of what a black American entertainer should and could look like
“[132] The Experience went on to perform renditions of “Hey Joe”, B
King’s “Rock Me Baby”, Chip Taylor’s “Wild Thing”, and Bob Dylan’s “Like a Rolling Stone”, as well as four original compositions: “Foxy Lady”, “Can You See Me”, “The Wind Cries Mary”, and “Purple Haze”
[122] The set ended with Hendrix destroying his guitar and tossing pieces of it out to the audience
[133] Rolling Stone’s Alex Vadukul wrote:
When Jimi Hendrix set his guitar on fire at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival he created one of rock’s most perfect moments
Standing in the front row of that concert was a 17-year-old boy named Ed Caraeff
Caraeff had never seen Hendrix before nor heard his music, but he had a camera with him and there was one shot left in his roll of film
As Hendrix lit his guitar, Caraeff took a final photo
It would become one of the most famous images in rock and roll
[134][nb 23]
Caraeff stood on a chair next to the edge of the stage while taking a series of four monochrome pictures of Hendrix burning his guitar
[137][nb 24] Caraeff was close enough to the fire that he had to use his camera as a shield to protect his face from the heat
Rolling Stone later colorized the image, matching it with other pictures taken at the festival before using the shot for a 1987 magazine cover
[137] According to author Gail Buckland, the fourth and final frame of “Hendrix kneeling in front of his burning guitar, hands raised, is one of the most famous images in rock
“[137] Author and historian Matthew C
Whitaker wrote: “Hendrix’s burning of his guitar became an iconic image in rock history and brought him national attention
“[138] The Los Angeles Times asserted that, upon leaving the stage, Hendrix “graduated from rumor to legend”
[139] Author John McDermott commented: “Hendrix left the Monterey audience stunned and in disbelief at what they’d just heard and seen
“[140] According to Hendrix: “I decided to destroy my guitar at the end of a song as a sacrifice
You sacrifice things you love
I love my guitar
“[141] The performance was filmed by D
Pennebaker, and later included in the concert documentary Monterey Pop, which helped Hendrix gain popularity with the U
Immediately after the festival, the Experience were booked for a series of five concerts at Bill Graham’s Fillmore, with Big Brother and the Holding Company and Jefferson Airplane
The Experience outperformed Jefferson Airplane during the first two nights, and replaced them at the top of the bill on the fifth
[143] Following their successful West Coast introduction, which included a free open-air concert at Golden Gate Park and a concert at the Whisky a Go Go, the Experience were booked as the opening act for the first American tour of the Monkees
[144] They requested Hendrix as a supporting act because they were fans, but their young audience disliked the Experience, who left the tour after six shows
[145] Chandler later admitted that he engineered the tour in an effort to gain publicity for Hendrix
The second Experience album, Axis: Bold as Love, opens with the track “EXP”, which innovatively utilized microphonic and harmonic feedback
[147] It also showcased an experimental stereo panning effect in which sounds emanating from Hendrix’s guitar move through the stereo image, revolving around the listener
[148] The piece reflected his growing interest in science fiction and outer space
[149] He composed the album’s title track and finale around two verses and two choruses, during which he pairs emotions with personas, comparing them to colors
[150] The song’s coda features the first recording of stereo phasing
[151][nb 25] Shadwick described the composition as “possibly the most ambitious piece on Axis, the extravagant metaphors of the lyrics suggesting a growing confidence” in Hendrix’s songwriting
[153] His guitar playing throughout the song is marked by chordal arpeggios and contrapuntal motion, with tremolo-picked partial chords providing the musical foundation for the chorus, which culminates in what musicologist Andy Aledort described as “simply one of the greatest electric guitar solos ever played”
[154] The track fades out on tremolo-picked thirty-second note double stops
The scheduled release date for Axis was almost delayed when Hendrix lost the master tape of side one of the LP, leaving it in the back seat of a London taxi
[156] With the deadline looming, Hendrix, Chandler, and engineer Eddie Kramer remixed most of side one in a single overnight session, but they could not match the quality of the lost mix of “If 6 Was 9”
Bassist Noel Redding had a tape recording of this mix, which had to be smoothed out with an iron as it had gotten wrinkled
[157] During the verses, Hendrix doubled his singing with a guitar line which he played one octave lower than his vocals
[158] Hendrix voiced his disappointment about having re-mixed the album so quickly, and he felt that it could have been better had they been given more time
Axis featured psychedelic cover art that depicts Hendrix and the Experience as various forms of Vishnu, incorporating a painting of them by Roger Law, from a photo-portrait by Karl Ferris
[159] The painting was then superimposed on a copy of a mass-produced religious poster
[160] Hendrix stated that the cover, which Track spent $5,000 producing, would have been more appropriate had it highlighted his American Indian heritage
[161] He commented: “You got it wrong 
I’m not that kind of Indian
“[161] Track released the album in the UK on December 1, 1967, where it peaked at number five, spending 16 weeks on the charts
[162] In February 1968, Axis: Bold as Love reached number three in the U
While author and journalist Richie Unterberger described Axis as the least impressive Experience album, according to author Peter Doggett, the release “heralded a new subtlety in Hendrix’s work”
[164] Mitchell commented: “Axis was the first time that it became apparent that Jimi was pretty good working behind the mixing board, as well as playing, and had some positive ideas of how he wanted things recorded
It could have been the start of any potential conflict between him and Chas in the studio
Recording for the Experience’s third and final studio album, Electric Ladyland, began at the newly opened Record Plant Studios, with Chandler as producer and engineers Eddie Kramer and Gary Kellgren
[166] As the sessions progressed, Chandler became increasingly frustrated with Hendrix’s perfectionism and his demands for repeated takes
[167] Hendrix also allowed numerous friends and guests to join them in the studio, which contributed to a chaotic and crowded environment in the control room and led Chandler to sever his professional relationship with Hendrix
[167] Redding later recalled: “There were tons of people in the studio; you couldn’t move
It was a party, not a session
“[168] Redding, who had formed his own band in mid-1968, Fat Mattress, found it increasingly difficult to fulfill his commitments with the Experience, so Hendrix played many of the bass parts on Electric Ladyland
[167] The album’s cover stated that it was “produced and directed by Jimi Hendrix”
[167][nb 26]
During the Electric Ladyland recording sessions, Hendrix began experimenting with other combinations of musicians, including Jefferson Airplane’s Jack Casady and Traffic’s Steve Winwood, who played bass and organ, respectively, on the fifteen-minute slow-blues jam, “Voodoo Chile”
[167] During the album’s production, Hendrix appeared at an impromptu jam with B
King, Al Kooper, and Elvin Bishop
[170][nb 27] Electric Ladyland was released on October 25, and by mid-November it had reached number one in the U
, spending two weeks at the top spot
[172] The double LP was Hendrix’s most commercially successful release and his only number one album
[173] It peaked at number six in the UK, spending 12 weeks on the chart
[112] Electric Ladyland included Hendrix’s cover of Bob Dylan’s song, “All Along the Watchtower”, which became Hendrix’s highest-selling single and his only U
top 40 hit, peaking at number 20; the single reached number five in the UK
[174] “Burning of the Midnight Lamp”, which was his first recorded song to feature the use of a wah-wah pedal, was added to the album
[175] It was originally released as his fourth single in the UK in August 1967[176] and reached number 18 in the charts
In 1989, Noe Goldwasser, the founding editor of Guitar World magazine, described Electric Ladyland as “Hendrix’s masterpiece”
[178] According to author Michael Heatley, “most critics agree” that the album is “the fullest realization of Jimi’s far-reaching ambitions
“[167] In 2004, author Peter Doggett commented: “For pure experimental genius, melodic flair, conceptual vision and instrumental brilliance, Electric Ladyland remains a prime contender for the status of rock’s greatest album
“[179] Doggett described the LP as “a display of musical virtuosity never surpassed by any rock musician
In January 1969, after an absence of more than six months, Hendrix briefly moved back into his girlfriend Kathy Etchingham’s Brook Street apartment, which was next door to the Handel House Museum in the West End of London
[180][nb 28] During this time, the Experience toured Scandinavia, Germany, and gave their final two performances in France
[182] On February 18 and 24, they played sold-out concerts at London’s Royal Albert Hall, which were the last European appearances of this line-up
[183][nb 29]
By February 1969, Redding had grown weary of Hendrix’s unpredictable work ethic and his creative control over the Experience’s music
[184] During the previous month’s European tour, interpersonal relations within the group had deteriorated, particularly between Hendrix and Redding
[185] In his diary, Redding documented the building frustration during early 1969 recording sessions: “On the first day, as I nearly expected, there was nothing doing 
On the second it was no show at all
I went to the pub for three hours, came back, and it was still ages before Jimi ambled in
Then we argued 
On the last day, I just watched it happen for a while, and then went back to my flat
“[185] The last Experience sessions that included Redding—a re-recording of “Stone Free” for use as a possible single release—took place on April 14 at Olmstead and the Record Plant in New York
[186] Hendrix then flew bassist Billy Cox to New York; they started recording and rehearsing together on April 21
The last performance of the original Experience line-up took place on June 29, 1969, at Barry Fey’s Denver Pop Festival, a three-day event held at Denver’s Mile High Stadium that was marked by police using tear gas to control the audience
[188] The band narrowly escaped from the venue in the back of a rental truck, which was partly crushed by fans who had climbed on top of the vehicle
[189] Before the show, a journalist angered Redding by asking why he was there; the reporter then informed him that two weeks earlier Hendrix announced that he had been replaced with Billy Cox
[190] The next day, Redding quit the Experience and returned to London
[188] He announced that he had left the band and intended to pursue a solo career, blaming Hendrix’s plans to expand the group without allowing for his input as a primary reason for leaving
[191] Redding later commented: “Mitch and I hung out a lot together, but we’re English
If we’d go out, Jimi would stay in his room
But any bad feelings came from us being three guys who were traveling too hard, getting too tired, and taking too many drugs 
I liked Hendrix
I don’t like Mitchell
Soon after Redding’s departure, Hendrix began lodging at the eight-bedroom Ashokan House, in the hamlet of Boiceville near Woodstock in upstate New York, where he had spent some time vacationing in mid-1969
[193] Manager Michael Jeffery arranged the accommodations in the hope that the respite might encourage Hendrix to write material for a new album
During this time, Mitchell was unavailable for commitments made by Jeffery, which included Hendrix’s first appearance on U
TV—on The Dick Cavett Show—where he was backed by the studio orchestra, and an appearance on The Tonight Show where he appeared with Cox and session drummer Ed Shaughnessy
By 1969, Hendrix was the world’s highest-paid rock musician
[195] In August, he headlined the Woodstock Music and Art Fair that included many of the most popular bands of the time
[196] For the concert, he added rhythm guitarist Larry Lee and conga players Juma Sultan and Jerry Velez
The band rehearsed for less than two weeks before the performance, and according to Mitchell, they never connected musically
[197] Before arriving at the engagement, he heard reports that the size of the audience had grown to epic proportions, which gave him cause for concern as he did not enjoy performing for large crowds
[198] He was an important draw for the event, and although he accepted substantially less money for the appearance than his usual fee he was the festival’s highest-paid performer
[199][nb 30] As his scheduled time slot of midnight on Sunday drew closer, he indicated that he preferred to wait and close the show in the morning; the band took the stage around 8:00 a
[201] By the time of their set, Hendrix had been awake for more than three days
[202] The audience, which peaked at an estimated 400,000 people, was now reduced to 30–40,000, many of whom had waited to catch a glimpse of Hendrix before leaving during his performance
[198] The festival MC, Chip Monck, introduced the group as the Jimi Hendrix Experience, but Hendrix clarified: “We decided to change the whole thing around and call it Gypsy Sun and Rainbows
For short, it’s nothin’ but a Band of Gypsys”
Hendrix’s performance featured a rendition of the U
national anthem, “The Star-Spangled Banner”, during which he used copious amounts of amplifier feedback, distortion, and sustain to replicate the sounds made by rockets and bombs
[204] Although contemporary political pundits described his interpretation as a statement against the Vietnam War, three weeks later Hendrix explained its meaning: “We’re all Americans 
it was like ‘Go America!’
 We play it the way the air is in America today
The air is slightly static, see”
[205] Immortalized in the 1970 documentary film, Woodstock, his guitar-driven version would become part of the sixties Zeitgeist
[206] Pop critic Al Aronowitz of The New York Post wrote: “It was the most electrifying moment of Woodstock, and it was probably the single greatest moment of the sixties
“[205] Images of the performance showing Hendrix wearing a blue-beaded white leather jacket with fringe, a red head-scarf, and blue jeans are widely regarded as iconic pictures that capture a defining moment of the era
[207][nb 31] He played “Hey Joe” during the encore, concluding the 3½-day festival
Upon leaving the stage, he collapsed from exhaustion
[206][nb 32] In 2011, the editors of Guitar World placed his rendition of “The Star-Spangled Banner” at Woodstock at number one in their list of his 100 greatest performances
A legal dispute arose in 1966 regarding a record contract that Hendrix had entered into the previous year with producer Ed Chalpin
[211] After two years of litigation, the parties agreed to a resolution that granted Chalpin the distribution rights to an album of original Hendrix material
Hendrix decided that they would record the LP, Band of Gypsys, during two live appearances
[212] In preparation for the shows he formed an all-black power-trio with Cox and drummer Buddy Miles, formerly with Wilson Pickett, the Electric Flag, and the Buddy Miles Express
[213] Critic John Rockwell described Hendrix and Miles as jazz-rock fusionists, and their collaboration as pioneering
[214] Others identified a funk and soul influence in their music
[215] Concert promoter Bill Graham called the shows “the most brilliant, emotional display of virtuoso electric guitar” that he had ever heard
[216] Biographers have speculated that Hendrix formed the band in an effort to appease members of the Black Power movement and others in the black communities who called for him to use his fame to speak-up for civil rights
Hendrix had been recording with Cox since April and jamming with Miles since September, and the trio wrote and rehearsed material which they performed at a series of four shows over two nights on December 31 and January 1, at the Fillmore East
They used recordings of these concerts to assemble the LP, which was produced by Hendrix
[218] The album includes the track “Machine Gun”, which musicologist Andy Aledort described as the pinnacle of Hendrix’s career, and “the premiere example of [his] unparalleled genius as a rock guitarist 
In this performance, Jimi transcended the medium of rock music, and set an entirely new standard for the potential of electric guitar
“[219] During the song’s extended instrumental breaks, Hendrix created sounds with his guitar that sonically represented warfare, including rockets, bombs, and diving planes
The Band of Gypsys album was the only official live Hendrix LP made commercially available during his lifetime; several tracks from the Woodstock and Monterey shows were released later that year
[221] The album was released in April 1970 by Capitol Records; it reached the top ten in both the U
[216] That same month a single was issued with “Stepping Stone” as the A-side and “Izabella” as the B-side, but Hendrix was dissatisfied with the quality of the mastering and he demanded that it be withdrawn and re-mixed, preventing the songs from charting and resulting in Hendrix’s least successful single; it was also his last
On January 28, 1970, a third and final Band of Gypsys appearance took place; they performed during a music festival at Madison Square Garden benefiting the anti-Vietnam War Moratorium Committee titled the “Winter Festival for Peace”
[223] American blues guitarist Johnny Winter was backstage before the concert; he recalled: “[Hendrix] came in with his head down, sat on the couch alone, and put his head in his hands 
He didn’t move until it was time for the show
“[224] Minutes after taking the stage he snapped a vulgar response at a woman who had shouted a request for “Foxy Lady”
He then began playing “Earth Blues” before telling the audience: “That’s what happens when earth fucks with space”
[224] Moments later, he briefly sat down on the drum riser before leaving the stage
[225] Both Miles and Redding later stated that Jeffery had given Hendrix LSD before the performance
[226] Miles believed that Jeffery gave Hendrix the drugs in an effort to sabotage the current band and bring about the return of the original Experience lineup
[225] Jeffery fired Miles after the show and Cox quit, ending the Band of Gypsys
Soon after the abruptly ended Band of Gypsys performance and their subsequent dissolution, Jeffery made arrangements to reunite the original Experience line-up
[228] Although Hendrix, Mitchell, and Redding were interviewed by Rolling Stone in February 1970 as a united group, Hendrix never intended to work with Redding
[229] When Redding returned to New York in anticipation of rehearsals with a reformed Experience, he was told that he had been replaced with Cox
[230] During an interview with Rolling Stone’s Keith Altham, Hendrix defended the decision: “It’s nothing personal against Noel, but we finished what we were doing with the Experience and Billy’s style of playing suits the new group better
“[228] Although the lineup of Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox became known as the Cry of Love band, after their accompanying tour, billing, advertisements, and tickets were printed with the New Jimi Hendrix Experience or occasionally just Jimi Hendrix
During the first half of 1970, Hendrix sporadically worked on material for what would have been his next LP
[222] Many of the tracks were posthumously released in 1971 as The Cry of Love
[232] He had started writing songs for the album in 1968, but in April 1970 he told Keith Altham that the project had been abandoned
[222] Soon afterward, he and his band took a break from recording and began the Cry of Love tour at the L
Forum, performing for 20,000 people
[233] Set-lists during the tour included numerous Experience tracks as well as a selection of newer material
[233] Several shows were recorded, and they produced some of Hendrix’s most memorable live performances
At one of them, the second Atlanta International Pop Festival, on July 4, he played to the largest American audience of his career
[234] According to authors Scott Schinder and Andy Schwartz, as many as 500,000 people attended the concert
[234] On July 17, they appeared at the New York Pop Festival; Hendrix had again consumed too many drugs before the show, and the set was considered a disaster
[235] The American leg of the tour, which included 32 performances, ended at Honolulu, Hawaii, on August 1, 1970
[236] This would be Hendrix’s final concert appearance in the U
In 1968, Hendrix and Jeffery jointly invested in the purchase of the Generation Club in Greenwich Village
[181] They had initially planned to reopen the establishment, but after an audit revealed that Hendrix had incurred exorbitant fees by block-booking lengthy sessions at peak rates they decided that the building would better serve them as a recording studio
[238] With a facility of his own, Hendrix could work as much as he wanted while also reducing his recording expenditures, which had reached a reported $300,000 annually
[239] Architect and acoustician John Storyk designed Electric Lady Studios for Hendrix, who requested that they avoid right angles where possible
With round windows, an ambient lighting machine, and a psychedelic mural, Storyk wanted the studio to have a relaxing environment that would encourage Hendrix’s creativity
[239] The project took twice as long as planned and cost twice as much as Hendrix and Jeffery had budgeted, with their total investment estimated at $1 million
[240][nb 33]
Hendrix first used Electric Lady on June 15, 1970, when he jammed with Steve Winwood and Chris Wood of Traffic; the next day, he recorded his first track there, “Night Bird Flying”
[241] The studio officially opened for business on August 25, and a grand opening party was held the following day
[241] Immediately afterwards, Hendrix left for England; he never returned to the States
[242] He boarded an Air India flight for London with Cox, joining Mitchell for a performance as the headlining act of the Isle of Wight Festival
When the European leg of the Cry of Love tour began, Hendrix was longing for his new studio and creative outlet, and was not eager to fulfill the commitment
On September 2, 1970, he abandoned a performance in Aarhus after three songs, stating: “I’ve been dead a long time”
[244] Four days later, he gave his final concert appearance, at the Isle of Fehmarn Festival in Germany
[245] He was met with booing and jeering from fans in response to his cancellation of a show slated for the end of the previous night’s bill due to torrential rain and risk of electrocution
[246][nb 34] Immediately following the festival, Hendrix, Mitchell, and Cox travelled to London
Three days after the performance, Cox, who was suffering from severe paranoia after either taking LSD or being given it unknowingly, quit the tour and went to stay with his parents in Pennsylvania
[249] Within days of Hendrix’s arrival in England, he had spoken with Chas Chandler, Alan Douglas, and others about leaving his manager, Michael Jeffery
[250] On September 16, Hendrix performed in public for the last time during an informal jam at Ronnie Scott’s Jazz Club in Soho with Eric Burdon and his latest band, War
[251] They began by playing a few of their recent hits, and after a brief intermission Hendrix joined them during “Mother Earth” and “Tobacco Road”
His performance was uncharacteristically subdued; he quietly played backing guitar, and refrained from the histrionics that people had come to expect from him
[252] He died less than 48 hours later
In July 1962, after Hendrix was discharged from the U
Army, he entered a small club in Clarksville, Tennessee
Drawn in by live music, he stopped for a drink and ended up spending most of the $400 he had saved
He explained: “I went in this jazz joint and had a drink
I liked it and I stayed
People tell me I get foolish, good-natured sometimes
Anyway, I guess I felt real benevolent that day
I must have been handing out bills to anyone that asked me
I came out of that place with sixteen dollars left
“[254] According to the authors Steven Roby and Brad Schreiber: “Alcohol would later be the scourge of his existence, driving him to fits of pique, even rare bursts of atypical, physical violence
Like most acid-heads, Jimi had visions and he wanted to create music to express what he saw
He would try to explain this to people, but it didn’t make sense because it was not linked to reality in any way
While Roby and Schreiber assert that Hendrix first used LSD when he met Linda Keith in late 1966, according to the authors Harry Shapiro and Caesar Glebbeek, the earliest that Hendrix is known to have ingested the drug was in June 1967, while attending the Monterey Pop Festival
[257] According to Hendrix biographer Charles Cross, the subject of drugs came up one evening in 1966 at Keith’s New York apartment; when one of Keith’s friends offered Hendrix acid, which is the street name for lysergic acid diethylamide, Hendrix declined, asking instead for LSD, showing what Cross described as “his naivete and his complete inexperience with psychedelics”
[258] Before that, Hendrix had only sporadically used drugs, his experimentation was significantly limited to cannabis, hashish, amphetamines, and occasionally cocaine
[258] After 1967, he regularly smoked cannabis and hashish, and used LSD and amphetamines, particularly while touring
[259] According to Cross, by the time of his death in September 1970, “few stars were as closely associated with the drug culture as Jimi
Hendrix would often become angry and violent when he drank too much alcohol, or when he mixed alcohol with drugs
[261] His friend Herbie Worthington explained: “You wouldn’t expect somebody with that kind of love to be that violent 
He just couldn’t drink 
he simply turned into a bastard
“[262] According to journalist and friend Sharon Lawrence, Hendrix “admitted he could not handle hard liquor, which set off a bottled-up anger, a destructive fury he almost never displayed otherwise
In January 1968, the Experience travelled to Sweden for a one-week tour of Europe
During the early morning hours of the first day, Hendrix became engaged in a drunken brawl in the Hotel Opalen, in Gothenburg, smashing a plate-glass window and injuring his right hand, for which he received medical treatment
[262] The incident culminated in his arrest and release, pending a court appearance that resulted in a large fine
[264] After the 1969 burglary of a house Hendrix was renting in Benedict Canyon, California, and while he was under the influence of drugs and alcohol, he punched his friend Paul Caruso and accused him of the theft
He then chased Caruso away from the residence while throwing stones at him
[265] A few days later, one of Hendrix’s girlfriends, Carmen Borrero, required stitches after he hit her above her eye with a vodka bottle during a drunken, jealous rage
On May 3, 1969, while Hendrix was passing through customs at Toronto International Airport, authorities detained him after finding a small amount of what they suspected to be heroin and hashish in his luggage
[266] Four hours later, he was formally charged with drug possession and released on $10,000 bail
He was required to return on May 5 for an arraignment hearing
[267] The incident proved stressful for Hendrix, and it weighed heavily on his mind during the seven months that he awaited trial
In order for the Crown to prove possession they had to show that Hendrix knew the drugs were there
[268] During the jury trial, which took place in December, he testified that a fan had given him a vial of what he thought was legal medication, which he put in his bag without knowledge of the illegal substances contained therein
[269] He was acquitted of the charges
[270] Both Mitchell and Redding later revealed that everyone had been warned about a planned drug bust the day before flying to Toronto; both men also stated that they believed that the drugs had been planted in Hendrix’s bag
Although the details of Hendrix’s last day and death are widely disputed, he spent much of September 17, 1970, in London with Monika Dannemann, the only witness to his final hours
[272] Dannemann said that she prepared a meal for them at her apartment in the Samarkand Hotel, 22 Lansdowne Crescent, Notting Hill, sometime around 11 p
, when they shared a bottle of wine
[273] She drove Hendrix to the residence of an acquaintance at approximately 1:45 a
, where he remained for about an hour before she picked him up and drove them back to her flat at 3 a
[274] Dannemann said they talked until around 7 a
, when they went to sleep
She awoke around 11 a
, and found Hendrix breathing, but unconscious and unresponsive
She called for an ambulance at 11:18 a
; they arrived on the scene at 11:27 a
[275] Paramedics then transported Hendrix to St Mary Abbot’s Hospital where Dr
John Bannister pronounced him dead at 12:45 p
on September 18, 1970
To determine the cause of death, coroner Gavin Thurston ordered a post-mortem examination on Hendrix’s body, which was performed on September 21 by Professor Robert Donald Teare, a forensic pathologist
[277] Thurston completed the inquest on September 28, and concluded that Hendrix aspirated his own vomit and died of asphyxia while intoxicated with barbiturates
[278] Citing “insufficient evidence of the circumstances”, he declared an open verdict
[279] Dannemann later revealed that Hendrix had taken nine of her prescribed Vesparax sleeping tablets, 18 times the recommended dosage
After Hendrix’s body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley,[281] it was flown to Seattle, Washington, on September 29, 1970
[282] After a service at Dunlop Baptist Church on October 1, he was interred at Greenwood Cemetery in Renton, Washington, the location of his mother’s gravesite
[283] Hendrix’s family and friends traveled in twenty-four limousines and more than two hundred people attended the funeral, including several notable musicians such as original Experience members Mitch Mitchell and Noel Redding, as well as Miles Davis, John Hammond, and Johnny Winter
[284][nb 35]
By 1967, as Hendrix was gaining in popularity, many of his pre-Experience recordings were marketed to an unsuspecting public as Jimi Hendrix albums, sometimes with misleading later images of Hendrix
[286] The recordings, which came under the control of producer Ed Chalpin of PPX, with whom Hendrix had signed a recording contract in 1965, were often re-mixed between their repeated reissues, and licensed to record companies such as Decca and Capitol
[287] Hendrix publicly denounced the releases, describing them as “malicious” and “greatly inferior”, stating: “At PPX, we spent on average about one hour recording a song
Today I spend at least twelve hours on each song
“[288] These unauthorized releases have long constituted a substantial part of his recording catalogue, amounting to hundreds of albums
Some of Hendrix’s unfinished material was released as the 1971 title The Cry of Love
[232] Although the album reached number three in the U
and number two in the UK, producers Mitchell and Kramer later complained that they were unable to make use of all the available songs because some tracks were used for 1971’s Rainbow Bridge; still others were issued on 1972’s War Heroes
[290] Material from The Cry of Love was re-released in 1997 as First Rays of the New Rising Sun, along with the other tracks that Mitchell and Kramer had wanted to include
[291][nb 36]
In 1993, MCA Records delayed a multimillion-dollar sale of Hendrix’s publishing copyrights because Al Hendrix was unhappy about the arrangement
[293] He acknowledged that he had sold distribution rights to a foreign corporation in 1974, but stated that it did not include copyrights and argued that he had retained veto power of the sale of the catalogue
[293] Under a settlement reached in July 1995, Al Hendrix prevailed in his legal battle and regained control of his son’s song and image rights
[294] He subsequently licensed the recordings to MCA through the family-run company Experience Hendrix LLC, formed in 1995
[295] In August 2009, Experience Hendrix announced that it had entered a new licensing agreement with Sony Music Entertainment’s Legacy Recordings division which would take effect in 2010
[296] Legacy and Experience Hendrix launched the 2010 Jimi Hendrix Catalog Project, starting with the release of Valleys of Neptune in March of that year
[297] In the months before his death, Hendrix recorded demos for a concept album tentatively titled Black Gold, which are now in the possession of Experience Hendrix LLC; as of 2013 no official release date has been announced
[298][nb 37]
Hendrix played a variety of guitars throughout his career, but the instrument that became most associated with him was the Fender Stratocaster
[300] He acquired his first Stratocaster in 1966, when a girlfriend loaned him enough money to purchase a used one that had been built around 1964
[301] He thereafter used the model prevalently during performances and recordings
[302] In 1967, he described the instrument as “the best all-around guitar for the stuff we’re doing”; he praised its “bright treble and deep bass sounds”
With few exceptions, Hendrix played right-handed guitars that were turned upside down and restrung for left-hand playing
[304] This had an important effect on the sound of his guitar; because of the slant of the bridge pickup, his lowest string had a brighter sound while his highest string had a darker sound, which was the opposite of the Stratocaster’s intended design
[305] In addition to Stratocasters, Hendrix also used Fender Jazzmasters, Duosonics, two different Gibson Flying Vs, a Gibson Les Paul, three Gibson SGs, a Gretsch Corvette, and a Fender Jaguar
[306] He used a white Gibson SG Custom for his performances on The Dick Cavett Show in September 1969, and a black Gibson Flying V during the Isle of Wight festival in 1970
[307][nb 38]
During 1965 and 1966, while Hendrix was playing back-up for soul and R&B acts in the U
, he used an 85-watt Fender Twin Reverb amplifier
[309] When Chandler brought Hendrix to England in October 1966, he supplied him with 30-watt Burns amps, which Hendrix thought were too small for his needs
[310][nb 39] After an early London gig when he was unable to use his preferred Fender Twin, he asked about the Marshall amps that he had noticed other groups using
[310] Years earlier, Mitch Mitchell had taken drum lessons from the amp builder, Jim Marshall, and he introduced Hendrix to Marshall
[311] At their initial meeting, Hendrix bought four speaker cabinets and three 100-watt Super Lead amplifiers; he would grow accustomed to using all three in unison
[310] The equipment arrived on October 11, 1966, and the Experience used the new gear during their first tour
[310] Marshall amps were well-suited for Hendrix’s needs, and they were paramount in the evolution of his heavily overdriven sound, enabling him to master the use of feedback as a musical effect, creating what author Paul Trynka described as a “definitive vocabulary for rock guitar”
[312] Hendrix usually turned all of the amplifier’s control knobs to the maximum level, which became known as the Hendrix setting
[313] During the four years prior to his death, he purchased between 50 and 100 Marshall amplifiers
[314] Jim Marshall said that he was “the greatest ambassador” his company ever had
One of Hendrix’s signature effects was the wah-wah pedal, which he first heard used with an electric guitar in Cream’s “Tales of Brave Ulysses”, released in May 1967
[317] In July of that year, while playing gigs at the Scene club in New York City, Hendrix met Frank Zappa, whose band, the Mothers of Invention were performing at the adjacent Garrick Theater
Hendrix was fascinated by Zappa’s application of the pedal, and he experimented with one later that evening
[318][nb 40] He used a wah pedal during the opening to “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)”, creating one of the best-known wah-wah riffs of the classic rock era
[320] He can also be heard using the effect on “Up from the Skies”, “Little Miss Lover”, and “Still Raining, Still Dreaming”
Hendrix consistently used a Dallas Arbiter Fuzz Face and a Vox wah pedal during recording sessions and live performances, but he also experimented with other guitar effects
[321] He enjoyed a fruitful long-term collaboration with electronics enthusiast Roger Mayer, whom he once called “the secret” of his sound
[322] Mayer introduced him to the Octavia, an octave doubling effect pedal, in December 1966, and he first recorded with the effect during the guitar solo to “Purple Haze”
Hendrix also utilized the Uni-Vibe, which was designed to simulate the modulation effects of a rotating Leslie speaker by providing a rich phasing sound that could be manipulated with a speed control pedal
He can be heard using the effect during his performance at Woodstock and on the Band of Gypsys track “Machine Gun”, which prominently features the Uni-vibe along with an Octavia and a Fuzz Face
[324] His signal flow for live performance involved first plugging his guitar into a wah-wah pedal, then connecting the wah-wah pedal to a Fuzz Face, which was then linked to a Uni-Vibe, before connecting to a Marshall amplifier
As an adolescent during the 1950s, Hendrix became interested in rock and roll artists such as Elvis Presley, Little Richard, and Chuck Berry
[326] In 1968, he told Guitar Player magazine that electric blues artists Muddy Waters, Elmore James, and B
King inspired him during the beginning of his career; he also cited Eddie Cochran as an early influence
[327] Of Muddy Waters, the first electric guitarist of which Hendrix became aware, he said: “I heard one of his records when I was a little boy and it scared me to death because I heard all of these sounds
“[328] In 1970, he told Rolling Stone that he was a fan of western swing artist Bob Wills and while he lived in Nashville, the television show the Grand Ole Opry
I don’t happen to know much about jazz
I know that most of those cats are playing nothing but blues, though—I know that much
Cox stated that during their time serving in the U
military he and Hendrix primarily listened to southern blues artists such as Jimmy Reed and Albert King
According to Cox, “King was a very, very powerful influence”
[327] Howlin’ Wolf also inspired Hendrix, who performed Wolf’s “Killing Floor” as the opening song of his U
debut at the Monterey Pop Festival
[331] The influence of soul artist Curtis Mayfield can be heard in Hendrix’s guitar playing, and the influence of Bob Dylan can be heard in Hendrix’s songwriting; he was known to play Dylan’s records repeatedly, particularly Highway 61 Revisited and Blonde on Blonde
He changed everything
What don’t we owe Jimi Hendrix? For his monumental rebooting of guitar culture “standards of tone”, technique, gear, signal processing, rhythm playing, soloing, stage presence, chord voicings, charisma, fashion, and composition? 
He is guitar hero number one
The Experience’s Rock and Roll Hall of Fame biography states: “Jimi Hendrix was arguably the greatest instrumentalist in the history of rock music
[1] Hendrix expanded the range and vocabulary of the electric guitar into areas no musician had ever ventured before
His boundless drive, technical ability and creative application of such effects as wah-wah and distortion forever transformed the sound of rock and roll
“[334] Musicologist Andy Aledort described Hendrix as “one of the most creative” and “influential musicians that has ever lived”
[335] Music journalist Chuck Philips wrote: “In a field almost exclusively populated by white musicians, Hendrix has served as a role model for a cadre of young black rockers
His achievement was to reclaim title to a musical form pioneered by black innovators like Little Richard and Chuck Berry in the 1950s
Hendrix favored overdriven amplifiers with high volume and gain
[110] He was instrumental in developing the previously undesirable technique of guitar amplifier feedback, and helped to popularize use of the wah-wah pedal in mainstream rock
[337] He rejected the standard barre chord fretting technique used by most guitarists in favor of fretting the low 6th string root notes with his thumb
[338] He applied this technique during the beginning bars of “Little Wing”, which allowed him to sustain the root note of chords while also playing melody
This method has been described as piano style, with the thumb playing what a pianist’s left hand would play and the other fingers playing melody as a right hand
[339] Having spent several years fronting a trio, he developed an ability to play rhythm chords and lead lines together, giving the audio impression that more than one guitarist was performing
[340][nb 41] He was the first artist to incorporate stereophonic phasing effects in rock music recordings
[343] Holly George-Warren of Rolling Stone commented: “Hendrix pioneered the use of the instrument as an electronic sound source
Players before him had experimented with feedback and distortion, but Hendrix turned those effects and others into a controlled, fluid vocabulary every bit as personal as the blues with which he began
“[2][nb 42] Aledort wrote: “In rock guitar, there are but two eras — before Hendrix and after Hendrix
While creating his unique musical voice and guitar style, Hendrix synthesized diverse genres, including blues, R&B, soul, British rock, American folk music, 1950s rock and roll, and jazz
[345] Musicologist David Moskowitz emphasized the importance of blues music in Hendrix’s playing style, and according to authors Steven Roby and Brad Schreiber, “[He] explored the outer reaches of psychedelic rock”
[346] His influence is evident in a variety of popular music formats, and he has contributed significantly to the development of hard rock, heavy metal, funk, post-punk, and hip hop music
[347] His lasting influence on modern guitar players is difficult to overstate; his techniques and delivery have been abundantly imitated by others
[348] Despite his hectic touring schedule and notorious perfectionism, he was a prolific recording artist who left behind numerous unreleased recordings
[349] More than 40 years after his death, Hendrix remains as popular as ever, with annual album sales exceeding that of any year during his lifetime
Hendrix has influenced numerous funk and funk rock artists, including Prince, George Clinton, John Frusciante, formerly of the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Eddie Hazel of Funkadelic, and Ernie Isley of the Isley Brothers
[351] Hendrix’s influence also extends to many hip hop artists, including De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest, Digital Underground, Beastie Boys, and Run–D
[352] Miles Davis was deeply impressed by Hendrix, and he compared Hendrix’s improvisational abilities with those of saxophonist John Coltrane
[353][nb 43] Hendrix also influenced industrial artist Marilyn Manson,[355] blues legend Stevie Ray Vaughan, Metallica’s Kirk Hammett, instrumental rock guitarist Joe Satriani, and heavy metal virtuoso Yngwie Malmsteen, who said: “[Hendrix] created modern electric playing, without question 
He was the first
He started it all
The rest is history
Hendrix received several prestigious rock music awards during his lifetime and posthumously
In 1967, readers of Melody Maker voted him the Pop Musician of the Year
[357] In 1968, Rolling Stone declared him the Performer of the Year
[357] Also in 1968, the City of Seattle gave him the Keys to the City
[358] Disc & Music Echo newspaper honored him with the World Top Musician of 1969 and in 1970, Guitar Player magazine named him the Rock Guitarist of the Year
Rolling Stone ranked his three non-posthumous studio albums, Are You Experienced (1967), Axis: Bold as Love (1967), and Electric Ladyland (1968) among the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time
[360] They ranked Hendrix number one on their list of the 100 greatest guitarists of all time, and number six on their list of the 100 greatest artists of all time
[361] Guitar World’s readers voted six of Hendrix’s solos among the top 100 Greatest Guitar Solos of All Time: “Purple Haze” (70), “The Star-Spangled Banner” (52; from Live at Woodstock), “Machine Gun” (32; from Band of Gypsys), “Little Wing” (18), “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)” (11), and “All Along the Watchtower” (5)
[362] Rolling Stone placed seven of his recordings in their list of the 500 Greatest Songs of All Time: “Purple Haze” (17), “All Along the Watchtower” (47) “Voodoo Child (Slight Return)” (102), “Foxy Lady” (153), “Hey Joe” (201), “Little Wing” (366), and “The Wind Cries Mary” (379)
[363] They also included three of Hendrix’s songs in their list of the 100 Greatest Guitar Songs of All Time: “Purple Haze” (2), “Voodoo Child” (12), and “Machine Gun” (49)
A star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame was dedicated to Hendrix on November 14, 1991, at 6627 Hollywood Boulevard
[365] The Jimi Hendrix Experience was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992, and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2005
[1][366] In 1999, readers of Rolling Stone and Guitar World ranked Hendrix among the most important musicians of the 20th century
[367] In 2005, his debut album, Are You Experienced, was one of 50 recordings added that year to the United States National Recording Registry in the Library of Congress, “[to] be preserved for all time 
[as] part of the nation’s audio legacy”
The blue plaque identifying his former residence at 23 Brook Street, London (next door to the former residence of George Frideric Handel) was the first one issued by English Heritage to commemorate a pop star
[369] A memorial statue of Hendrix playing a Stratocaster stands near the corner of Broadway and Pine Streets in Seattle
In May 2006, the city renamed a park near its Central District, Jimi Hendrix Park, in his honor
[370] In 2012, an official historic marker was erected on the site of the July 1970 Second Atlanta International Pop Festival near Byron, Georgia
The marker text reads, in part: “Over thirty musical acts performed, including rock icon Jimi Hendrix playing to the largest American audience of his career
Hendrix’s music has received a number of Hall of Fame Grammy awards, starting with a Lifetime Achievement Award in 1992, followed by two Grammys in 1999 for his albums Are You Experienced and Electric Ladyland; Axis: Bold as Love received a Grammy in 2006
[372][373] In 2000, he received a Hall of Fame Grammy award for his original composition, “Purple Haze”, and in 2001 for his recording of Dylan’s “All Along the Watchtower”
Hendrix’s rendition of “The Star-Spangled Banner” was honored with a Grammy in 2009
The United States Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honoring Hendrix in 2014

making money online while cooking in my kitchen

Julia Carolyn Child (maiden name, McWilliams;[1] August 15, 1912 – August 13, 2004) was an American chef, author, and television personality
She is recognized for bringing French cuisine to the American public with her debut cookbook, Mastering the Art of French Cooking, and her subsequent television programs, the most notable of which was The French Chef, which premiered in 1963
Child was born Julia Carolyn McWilliams in Pasadena, California, the daughter of John McWilliams, Jr
, a Princeton University graduate and prominent land manager, and his wife, the former Julia Carolyn (“Caro”) Weston, a paper-company heiress whose father, Byron Curtis Weston, served as lieutenant governor of Massachusetts
The eldest[2] of three children, she had a brother, John III (1914–2002), and a sister, Dorothy Dean Cousins (1917–2006)
Child attended Westridge School, Polytechnic School from fourth grade to ninth grade, then the Katherine Branson School in Ross, California, which was at the time a boarding school
[3] At six feet, two inches (1
88 m) tall, Child played tennis, golf, and basketball as a child and continued to play sports while attending Smith College, from which she graduated in 1934 with a major in English
[1] A press release issued by Smith in 2004 states that her major was history
Following her graduation from college, Child moved to New York City, where she worked as a copywriter for the advertising department of upscale home-furnishing firm W
Returning to California in 1937, she spent the next four years writing for local publications, working in advertising, and volunteering with the Junior League of Pasadena
Child joined the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) after finding that she was too tall to enlist in the Women’s Army Corps (WACs) or in the U
Navy’s WAVES
[6] She began her OSS career as a typist at its headquarters in Washington, but because of her education and experience soon was given a more responsible position as a top secret researcher working directly for the head of OSS, General William J
As a research assistant in the Secret Intelligence division, she typed 10,000 names on white note cards to keep track of officers
For a year, she worked at the OSS Emergency Rescue Equipment Section (ERES) in Washington, D
as a file clerk and then as an assistant to developers of a shark repellent needed to ensure that sharks would not explode ordnance targeting German U-boats
In 1944 she was posted to Kandy, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), where her responsibilities included “registering, cataloging and channeling a great volume of highly classified communications” for the OSS’s clandestine stations in Asia
[8] She was later posted to China, where she received the Emblem of Meritorious Civilian Service as head of the Registry of the OSS Secretariat
[9] For her service, Child received an award that cited her many virtues, including her “drive and inherent cheerfulness
“[7] As with other OSS records, her file was declassified in 2008, however, unlike other files, her complete file is available online
While in Ceylon, she met Paul Cushing Child, also an OSS employee, and the two were married September 1, 1946, in Lumberville, Pennsylvania,[11] later moving to Washington, D
A New Jersey native[12] who had lived in Paris as an artist and poet, Paul was known for his sophisticated palate,[13] and introduced his wife to fine cuisine
He joined the United States Foreign Service, and in 1948 the couple moved to Paris when the US State Department assigned Paul there as an exhibits officer with the United States Information Agency
[9] The couple had no children
Child repeatedly recalled her first meal in Rouen as a culinary revelation; once, she described the meal of oysters, sole meunière, and fine wine to The New York Times as “an opening up of the soul and spirit for me
” In Paris, she attended the famous Le Cordon Bleu cooking school and later studied privately with Max Bugnard and other master chefs
[14] She joined the women’s cooking club Le Cercle des Gourmettes, through which she met Simone Beck, who was writing a French cookbook for Americans with her friend Louisette Bertholle
Beck proposed that Child work with them, to make the book appeal to Americans
In 1951, Child, Beck, and Bertholle began to teach cooking to American women in Child’s Paris kitchen, calling their informal school L’école des trois gourmandes (The School of the Three Food Lovers)
For the next decade, as the Childs moved around Europe and finally to Cambridge, Massachusetts, the three researched and repeatedly tested recipes
Child translated the French into English, making the recipes detailed, interesting, and practical
In 1963, the Childs built a home near the Provence town of Plascassier in the hills above Cannes on property belonging to co-author Simone Beck and her husband, Jean Fischbacher
The Childs named it “La Pitchoune”, a Provençal word meaning “the little one” but over time the property was often affectionately referred to simply as “La Peetch”
The three would-be authors initially signed a contract with publisher Houghton Mifflin, which later rejected the manuscript for seeming too much like an encyclopedia
Finally, when it was first published in 1961 by Alfred A
Knopf, the 726-page Mastering the Art of French Cooking[16] was a best-seller and received critical acclaim that derived in part from the American interest in French culture in the early 1960s
Lauded for its helpful illustrations and precise attention to detail, and for making fine cuisine accessible, the book is still in print and is considered a seminal culinary work
Following this success, Child wrote magazine articles and a regular column for The Boston Globe newspaper
She would go on to publish nearly twenty titles under her name and with others
Many, though not all, were related to her television shows
Her last book was the autobiographical My Life in France, published posthumously in 2006 and written with her grand nephew, Alex Prud’homme
The book recounts Child’s life with her husband, Paul Child, in post-World War II France
A 1962 appearance on a book review show on what was then the National Educational Television (NET) station of Boston, WGBH-TV(now a major Public Broadcasting Service station), led to the inception of her first television cooking show after viewers enjoyed her demonstration of how to cook an omelette
The French Chef had its debut on February 11, 1963, on WGBH and was immediately successful
The show ran nationally for ten years and won Peabody and Emmy Awards, including the first Emmy award for an educational program
Though she was not the first television cook, Child was the most widely seen
She attracted the broadest audience with her cheery enthusiasm, distinctively charming warbly voice, and unpatronizing and unaffected manner
In 1972, The French Chef became the first television program to be captioned for the deaf, even though this was done using the preliminary technology of open-captioning
Child’s second book, The French Chef Cookbook, was a collection of the recipes she had demonstrated on the show
It was soon followed in 1971 by Mastering the Art of French Cooking, Volume Two, again in collaboration with Simone Beck, but not with Louisette Bertholle, with whom the professional relationship had ended
Child’s fourth book, From Julia Child’s Kitchen, was illustrated with her husband’s photographs and documented the color series of The French Chef, as well as providing an extensive library of kitchen notes compiled by Child during the course of the show
[citation needed]
In the 1970s and 1980s, she was the star of numerous television programs, including Julia Child & Company, Julia Child & More Company and Dinner at Julia’s
For the 1979 book Julia Child and More Company she won a National Book Award in category Current Interest
[17] In 1981 she founded the American Institute of Wine & Food,[18] with vintners Robert Mondavi and Richard Graff, and others, to “advance the understanding, appreciation and quality of wine and food,” a pursuit she had already begun with her books and television appearances
In 1989, she published what she considered her magnum opus, a book and instructional video series collectively entitled The Way To Cook
Child starred in four more series in the 1990s that featured guest chefs: Cooking with Master Chefs, In Julia’s Kitchen with Master Chefs, Baking with Julia, and Julia Child & Jacques Pépin Cooking at Home
She collaborated with Jacques Pépin many times for television programs and cookbooks
All of Child’s books during this time stemmed from the television series of the same names
Child’s use of ingredients like butter and cream has been questioned by food critics and modern-day nutritionists
She addressed these criticisms throughout her career, predicting that a “fanatical fear of food” would take over the country’s dining habits, and that focusing too much on nutrition takes the pleasure from enjoying food
[19][20] In a 1990 interview, Child said, “Everybody is overreacting
If fear of food continues, it will be the death of gastronomy in the United States
Fortunately, the French don’t suffer from the same hysteria we do
We should enjoy food and have fun
It is one of the simplest and nicest pleasures in life
Julia Child’s kitchen, designed by her husband, was the setting for three of her television shows
It is now on display at the National Museum of American History in Washington, D
Beginning with In Julia’s Kitchen with Master Chefs, the Childs’ home kitchen in Cambridge was fully transformed into a functional set, with TV-quality lighting, three cameras positioned to catch all angles in the room, and a massive center island with a gas stovetop on one side and an electric stovetop on the other, but leaving the rest of the Childs’ appliances alone, including “my wall oven with its squeaking door
“[22] This kitchen backdrop hosted nearly all of Child’s 1990s television series
After the death of her beloved friend Simone Beck, Child relinquished La Pitchoune after a month long stay in June 1992 with her family, her niece, Phila, and close friend and biographer, Noël Riley Fitch
She turned the keys over to Jean Fischbacher’s sister, just as she and Paul had promised nearly 30 years earlier
Also in 1992, Julia spent five days in Sicily at the invitation of Regaleali Winery
American journalist Bob Spitz spent a brief time with Julia during that period while he was researching and writing his then working title, History of Eating and Cooking in America
Spitz took notes and made many recordings of his conversation with Child and these later formed the basis of a secondary biography on Child, published August 7, 2012 (Knopf), five days before the centennial of her birthdate
[23][24] Paul Child, who was ten years older than his wife, died in 1994 after living in a nursing home for five years following a series of strokes in 1989
In 2001, Child moved to a retirement community, donating her house and office to Smith College, which later sold the house
[26] She donated her kitchen, which her husband designed with high counters to accommodate her height, and which served as the set for three of her television series, to the National Museum of American History, where it is now on display
[27] Her iconic copper pots and pans were on display at Copia in Napa, California, until August 2009 when they were reunited with her kitchen at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History in Washington, D
In 2000, Child received the French Legion of Honour[28][29] and was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2000
[30] She was awarded the U
Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2003; she also received honorary doctorates from Harvard University, Johnson & Wales University (1995), Smith College (her alma mater), Brown University (2000),[31] and several other universities
On August 13, 2004, Julia Child died of kidney failure at her retirement community home, Casa Dorinda, in Montecito, California, two days before her 92nd birthday
[32] Her last meal was French onion soup
[33] Child ended her last book, My Life in France, with ”
thinking back on it now reminds that the pleasures of the table, and of life, are infinite – toujours bon appétit!”[25]
In 1995, Julia Child established The Julia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and Culinary Arts, a private charitable foundation to make grants to further her life’s work
The Foundation, originally set up in Massachusetts, later moved to Santa Barbara, California, where it is now headquartered
Inactive until after Julia’s death in 2004, the Foundation makes grants to other non-profits
[34] The grants support primarily gastronomy, the culinary arts and the further development of the professional food world, all matters of paramount importance to Julia Child during her lifetime
The Foundation’s website provides a dedicated page listing the names of grant recipients with a description of the organization and the grant provided by the Foundation
[35] One of the grant recipients is Heritage Radio Network which covers the world of food, drink and agriculture
Beyond making grants, the Foundation was also established to protect Julia Child’s legacy; it is the organization to approach to seek permission to use images of Julia Child and/or excerpts of her work
Many of these rights are jointly held with other organizations like her publishers and the Schlesinger Library at The Radcliffe Institute at Harvard University who may also need to be contacted
Recently, the Foundation has been more active in protecting these posthumous rights
Well known for her opposition to endorsements, the Foundation follows a similar policy regarding the use of Julia’s name and image for commercial purposes
The Julia Child Rose, known in the UK as the “Absolutely Fabulous” rose, is a golden butter/gold floribunda rose named after Child
On September 26, 2014, the US Postal Service issued 20 million copies of the “Celebrity Chefs Forever” stamp series, which featured portraits by Jason Seiler of five American chefs: Julia Child, Joyce Chen, James Beard, Edna Lewis, and Felipe Rojas-Lombardi
Child was a favorite of audiences from the moment of her television début on public television in 1963, and she was a familiar part of American culture and the subject of numerous references, including numerous parodies in television and radio programs and skits
Her great success on air may have been tied to her refreshingly pragmatic approach to the genre, “I think you have to decide who your audience is
If you don’t pick your audience, you’re lost because you’re not really talking to anybody
My audience is people who like to cook, who want to really learn how to do it
” In 1996, Julia Child was ranked No
46 on TV Guide’s 50 Greatest TV Stars of All Time
In 2002, Child was the inspiration for “The Julie/Julia Project,” a popular cooking blog by Julie Powell that was the basis of Powell’s bestselling book, Julie and Julia: 365 Days, 524 Recipes, 1 Tiny Apartment Kitchen, published in 2005, the year following Child’s death
The paperback version of the book was retitled Julie and Julia: My Year of Cooking Dangerously
[47][48][49] The blog and book, along with Child’s own memoir My Life in France, in turn inspired the 2009 feature film Julie & Julia in which Meryl Streep portrayed Child
For her performance, Streep received an Academy Award for Best Actress nomination
Child is reported to have been unimpressed by Powell’s blog, believing Powell’s determination to cook every recipe in Mastering the Art of French Cooking in a year to be a stunt
Child’s editor, Judith Jones, said in an interview: “Flinging around four-letter words when cooking isn’t attractive, to me or Julia
She didn’t want to endorse it
What came through on the blog was somebody who was doing it almost for the sake of a stunt
She would never really describe the end results, how delicious it was, and what she learned
Julia didn’t like what she called ‘the flimsies’
She didn’t suffer fools, if you know what I mean
On March 15, 2016, Twitch
tv started to stream Julia Child’s show The French Chef
This event was in celebration of both the launch of the cooking section of Twitch
tv and the anniversary of Child’s graduation from Le Cordon Bleu

Working from home is awesome!

Kia Michelle Stevens[1] (born September 4, 1977) is an American professional wrestler best known for her time with Total Nonstop Action Wrestling under the ring name Awesome Kong
She is also known by the ring name Amazing Kong and appeared in WWE as Kharma
She is a five-time Women’s Champion, having won the TNA Knockouts Championship two times and the WWWA World Championship, NWA World Women’s Championship and AWA Superstars of Wrestling World Women’s Championship once
Her success is not limited to singles wrestling, as she frequently teamed with Aja Kong to form the tag team W Kong who held tag team championships in four different promotions, along with winning the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Championship with Hamada
She was also ranked first in the inaugural list of Pro Wrestling Illustrated’s Top 50 Females and is the third woman to enter the WWE Royal Rumble match
She began her professional wrestling career in 2002 after appearing on a reality television show
She primarily wrestled in Japan for the first five years of her career, holding numerous championships there
In 2006 she began wrestling in her native United States again, appearing on the independent circuit before appearing on national television with TNA Wrestling where she was a driving force in the foundation of their Knockouts division
Joanie Laurer, known during her WWF career as Chyna, and Trish Stratus served as Stevens’ primary inspirations to become a professional wrestler
[8] In 2002, Stevens appeared on the Discovery Health Body Challenge as a contestant trying to lose weight in hopes of becoming a professional wrestler
[9] Afterward, Stevens trained at the School of Hard Knocks out of San Bernardino, California
[7][10] Soon, she was able to have her first professional match in the Empire Wrestling Federation
After putting on an impressive showing at a tryout, Stevens was invited to further her training in the dojo of joshi puroresu (female Japanese wrestling) promotion All Japan Women’s Pro-Wrestling (AJW)
[7][10] While there she underwent a rigorous training schedule, became fluent in Japanese, and engaged in training for mixed martial arts but chose to pursue professional wrestling
[10] She was given the ring name Amazing Kong by Masatsugu Matsunaga, who needed a replacement for Japanese female wrestler Aja Kong in several matches
[11] Stevens, as Kong, worked for multiple women’s promotions in Japan, and she defeated Ayako Hamada for the WWWA World Heavyweight Championship in late 2004
[7] Later, Stevens cited Hamada as one of her favorite opponents
In 2004 Kong debuted for the joshi promotion Gaea Japan in a match against Aja Kong
In the battle of American Kong versus Japanese Kong on April 30 at Limit Break
At the promotion’s ninth anniversary event Aja Kong won the match but gained enough respect for Amazing Kong that the two attacked both competitors in the main event, revealing themselves as a new tag team named W Kong
[12] The duo soon made their presence felt when they challenged Chigusa Nagayo and Lioness Asuka for the AAAW Tag Team Championship on May 5 and won
[13] The team defended the championship successfully all Summer, eventually losing to Manami Toyota and Carlos Amano on September 20
[14] Going into 2005, Kong main evented the final Gaea show before the promotion closed down
In the final match of Fifth Anniversary, Kong teamed with Ayako Hamada and Mayumi Ozaki in a winning effort against Akino, Dynamite Kansai and Gami with Ayako picking up the victory
After the closure of Gaea, W Kong went on to wrestle for a number of Japanese promotions including Hustle, where they were given the comedic gimmicks of Margaret and Erika which involved, among other things, wrestling in a yellow tutu
[10] They won the predominantly male Hustle Super Tag Team Championship from June until October 2006
[7][16] They were also the final team to hold WWWA World Tag Team Championship before AJW shut down
[10] In early 2007, Kong also won the AWA Superstars of Wrestling World Women’s Championship in Tokyo, Japan and held it from January to May
[7] She lost it to Nanae Takahashi in a three way match, which also included Wesna
Her success in Japan attracted the attention of United States promotion Shimmer Women Athletes, who began regularly booking her for their DVD tapings in Kong’s homeland from May 2006
Her debut came on Volume 5 with a win against Nikki Roxx
[18] She defeated Roxx again on Volume 14: Hot Summer Nights in a rematch
[19] The rematch was Kong’s fifth successive win which led her to challenge for the Shimmer Championship in October 2007 against inaugural champion Sara Del Rey, for the Volume 15 taping
Del Rey retained to give Kong her first Shimmer loss, albeit via count out
Kong then began another winning streak, losing only to Ariel by disqualification after using a chair on Volume 17 which set back her chances of being given another championship match
She was placed in a Four-Way Contendership match on Volume 21; during the match Mercedes Martinez used her Fisherman Buster finisher on Cheerleader Melissa but before she could be pinned, Kong dragged Martinez to the floor and the two battled it out while Ariel stole the win to receive a championship match
[21] This incident led to a grudge match between Martinez and Kong on Volume 23, which Kong won
[22] On the following show, instead of a Shimmer Championship match, Kong was put in a contendership match for the Shimmer Tag Team Championship, forming a brief alliance of convenience with Del Rey, who herself was having issues with their opponents MelissChif (Cheerleader Melissa and Shimmer Champion MsChif)
After winning the match,[23] they faced the reigning champions Ashley Lane and Nevaeh in the following match, and once again Kong was disqualified after using chairs on her opponents
An assault continued until Martinez and Serena Deeb, who was feuding with Del Rey, appeared to help out the Tag Team Champions
This occurrence led to another tag team match with Kong and Del Rey picking up a victory over Martinez and Deeb
Wanting to focus on her singles career again, Kong wrestled LuFisto on Volume 27 in a match to take on the Shimmer Champion
It ended in a double count-out, with the two brawling outside the ring through the building and even during the next match in the show
This meant the championship match on Volume 28, in November 2009, would be a three-way elimination match including the champion MsChif
[25] Kong eliminated LuFisto early on with an Amazing Bomb, essentially leading to a rematch of Kong and MsChif’s critically respected Volume 9 match
[26][27] In this match, however, MsChif took a return win after kicking out of the Amazing Bomb and delivering all of her signature finishing moves on Kong to become the first woman to pin Kong in Shimmer
[25] She appeared for one more appearance in September 2010 for the Volume 35 event, answering an open challenge by Kellie Skater with an emphatic victory
Owing to Shimmer being a sister promotion of Ring of Honor (ROH), Kong was noticed by ROH and scouted to appear on both products
On 15 September 2007 she made her debut for ROH at their Man Up pay-per-view (PPV)
Teaming with Daizee Haze in a tag team match, they defeated Sara Del Rey and Lacey
Kong returned to ROH on May 8, 2010 to take part in the promotion’s annual Supercard of Honor V
Once more she wrestled Del Rey, this time in a singles match which she lost after Del Rey used a weighted elbow pad thrown to her by Kings of Wrestling stablemate Chris Hero, sparking a rivalry between the two
[30] Kong returned to settle the score with Del Rey two months later at Hate: Chapter II on July 23
The Kings of Wrestling were in the midst of a rivalry with The Briscoe Brothers (Jay and Mark), and so Kong teamed with them in a six-person tag team match, where they defeated Del Rey, Hero and their stablemate Claudio Castagnoli, though Kong did not secure the pin
Consequently, they had a singles rematch the following night, with Kong finally defeating Del Rey one-on-one
[31][32] At the end of the year, ROH held their live PPV Final Battle 2010, which saw Del Rey challenge Daizee Haze to bring more competition to ROH
Haze responded by bringing Kong back for the December 18 match against Del Rey and her partner Serena Deeb
In the match Del Rey pinned Haze, while Deeb successfully neutralized Kong with a spear
After growing success in Shimmer, Kong began appearing on the American independent circuit bringing with her the AWA World Women’s Championship from Japan
She put it on the line in a champion versus champion match against MsChif’s NWA World Women’s Championship on May 5, 2007 becoming a joint champion with her win
[7][34] A rematch between the two in September, exclusively for the NWA belt after Kong lost the AWA title in May, headlined the NWA No Limits 3rd Anniversary Show which saw Kong retain the title
[35] Kong defended the belt in a number of promotions throughout the year but 11 months later, in April 2008, MsChif won back the title via countout under a special stipulation to retain Kong’s stature
[36] The following year, Kong once again challenged for the NWA World Championship at NWA Charlotte’s Valentine’s Day themed inaugural show, Thorns & Roses, in the penultimate match of the evening
With Daffney in her corner, MsChif and saved herself from the Awesome Bomb by using her green mist, disqualifying herself to retain the belt in the process
In June 2007, Kong toured Great Britain under the ChickFight promotion, wrestling guest matches under that banner for other promotions
The tour started on June 15 in Wales for Celtic Wrestling, where she picked up a victory over ChickFight stalwart Cheerleader Melissa
[38] The following day Kong debuted for Real Quality Wrestling (RQW) and took part in a Four-Way RQW Women’s Championship match, that saw Wesna win the belt from reigning champion Eden Black, with Jetta also coming up winless
[39] The following day Kong competed in Chickfight IX, the ninth and final all-women knockout tournament under the ChickFight banner
She received a bye via forfeit, owing to a severe injury Cheerleader Melissa had given her opponent Sweet Saraya at RQW the night before, which allowed her to be fresh against Blue Nikita
After defeating Nikita in the semi-final, she faced dethroned RQW Champion Eden Black and won the trophy
After achieving notoriety on national television, Kong received more bookings including for the all-female company Women Superstars Uncensored in March 2008
She appeared at their First Anniversary Show answering an open challenge made by Rick Cataldo and Roxxie Cotton, defeating them both in a handicap match within a minute
Later in the same event she teamed with Amy Lee and defeated Angel Orsini and Shimmer rival Mercedes Martinez
Despite picking up the victory, Kong felt that Lee stole the glory of a win from her and went to attack Lee; this led to an Amy Lee’s Rules match in the main event of Dawn of a New Day which Kong won after Lee passed out, refusing to submit
The two had a rematch at Army of One which Kong lost by disqualification after hitting a referee leading to a deciding rubber match contested under Last Man Standing rules
At the Second Anniversary Show, Kong narrowly beat Amy Lee after charging at Lee with a chair only for Lee to pass out to the ground and Kong to hit the ropes and knock the chair back into herself
Judging Lee to have been down one count before Kong, Kong won the match but bowed to Lee afterwards out of respect
After winning this match, Kong was given a match against Martinez for the WSU Championship in December 2009 at a WSU and National Wrestling Superstars co-hosted event
[41] Kong received another chance at the title at Evolve 5: Danielson v Sawa for the Evolve promotion but still could not bring an end to Martinez’s two-year reign
Stevens debuted on the October 11, 2007 episode of Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA)’s flagship show Impact! under the tweaked name Awesome Kong as part of TNA’s attempt to bolster their Knockout division
After defeating Gail Kim,[7] Kong participated appeared at the Bound for Glory PPV
There she took part in a 10-Knockout Gauntlet match to crown the first TNA Women’s Knockout Champion but she was eliminated by the combined effort of Angelina Love, ODB and eventual winner Gail Kim
[42] Two months later at Turning Point, she lost a Women’s Knockout Championship match to Kim via disqualification after shoving the referee and Awesome Bombing him
[43] This incident led to a No Disqualification match for the Women’s Knockout Championship at Final Resolution in January 2008, which Kong also lost
[7] On the next episode of Impact!, airing 10 January, Kong debuted an anonymous manager wearing a niqāb, later named Raisha Saeed; with her help Kong finally won the Women’s Knockout Championship
[7] At Lockdown, Kong and Saeed teamed up for the first time, losing a Tag Team Cage match to Kim and ODB
On the 8 May episode of Impact! Kong began a regular $25,000 challenge to females in the audience who wanted to challenge her for the Women’s Knockout Championship
The audience members, played by planted wrestlers, failed to defeat her but one challenger, Taylor Wilde, kept returning and on 10 July she won both the $25,000 and Women’s Knockout Championship on her third attempt
[7][45] Kong then failed to regain the championship from Wilde during a rematch at Victory Road
[46] On October 23, during a live episode of Impact! Kong defeated Wilde to become a two-time Knockout Champion
[7] Two weeks later Wilde’s tag team partner Rhaka Khan turned on her and aligned herself with Kong and Saeed
[47] The alliance of Kong, Saeed and Khan became known as The Kongtourage, with a fourth wrestler named Sojourner Bolt joining later
[48] Wilde then found a new partner in Roxxi, who helped her defeat Kong and Saeed in a tag team match at Turning Point
[49] Going into 2009, Bolt became the contender for Kong’s championship and left the Kongtourage with Khan
[50][51] Kong retained her title against Bolt at Destination X in April
On the March 26 episode of Impact!, Kong and Saeed were defeated by villainous tag team The Beautiful People (Angelina Love and Velvet Sky), and after the match The Beautiful People tried to cut Kong’s hair as part of their makeover gimmick
[53] They continued to target Kong’s hair and eventually accomplished the task on the April 16 episode of Impact! which transitioned Kong into a fan favorite by attempting to retaliate
[7] The tension built to a Three-Way Cage match at Lockdown for the Women’s Knockout Championship with Kong defending against Angelina Love and continual rival Wilde
In the match, Kong lost the championship after Velvet Sky, on the outside, tied Kong’s hair to the cage preventing her from breaking up Love’s pin on Wilde
[54] After losing the title, Kong defeated Love’s allies Sky, Madison Rayne and Cute Kip in separate Stretcher matches ahead of their rematch
[7] Love, however, retained the title against Kong at Sacrifice
In August 2009 Kong and Saeed entered the tournament to crown the inaugural TNA Knockouts Tag Team Champions
In the first round of the tournament, the team was able to defeat The Main Event Mafia (Traci Brooks and Sharmell) after Saeed blind tagged Kong and pinned Brooks, much to Kong’s dismay
[55] Three weeks later they were eliminated from the tournament by their long term rival Taylor Wilde and her partner Sarita when Wilde pinned Saeed
[56] Subsequently, Kong began rivalries with Tara and Knockout Champion ODB
At Bound for Glory, Kong had her last match for the Knockout Championship against Tara and ODB, but Saeed inadvertently cost Kong the match while interfering
[57] On the following episode of Impact! Kong faced Saeed in a grudge match and powerbombed her through the entrance stage, signalling the end of both their partnership and the Saeed character
[58] After interfering in two of Tara’s matches, Kong and Tara wrestled at Turning Point in a Cage match, which Tara won
On the December 17 episode of Impact! Kong formed a tag team with Hamada as they won a three-way non-title match against The Beautiful People (Madison Rayne and Velvet Sky) and the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Champions Taylor Wilde and Sarita, when Kong pinned Rayne
[60] On the first Impact! episode of 2010, Kong and Hamada defeated Sarita and Wilde to win the TNA Knockouts Tag Team Championship
In a non-storyline incident Bubba the Love Sponge claimed on his January 19 radio show that Stevens had attacked him while backstage for the tapings of Impact! the previous day due to his negative comments concerning the Haiti earthquake relief project
Kong, who had been a driving force in the wrestling community in raising funds for Haiti, was reportedly sent home from the tapings following the altercation
[62] It was later reported that the same day as Bubba’s radio show, Stevens asked for her release from TNA, but it was not granted
[63] After she refused to take part in TNA’s January 2010 tour of the United Kingdom, the company suspended her
[64] The following month, Stevens filed a lawsuit against Bubba for an alleged threatening phone call
[65] She was reportedly released from TNA on March 1
[66] On the March 8 episode of Impact! it was announced that Kong and Hamada were stripped of the Knockouts Tag Team title after allegedly failing to defend them in 30 days,[67] even though their previous defense had taken place just 21 days prior, against Madison Rayne and Velvet Sky
[68] On March 22, TNA confirmed Stevens’ release, while also claiming that she had requested her release due to personal reasons, but she later said it was due to monetary issues and recent changes to TNA management
In March 2013, Stevens turned down an offer to take part in a special all Knockouts pay-per-view held by TNA
[71] During an interview in late November 2012, Stevens revealed that she would never again work for TNA Wrestling
On December 29, 2010, it was reported that Stevens had signed a contract with WWE
[73][74] From April 11, 2011 onwards, vignettes aired during WWE television with Stevens, whose face was concealed by shadows and her signature braids, dismembering female dolls while cackling maniacally
[75] During the April 25 episode of Raw, Stevens’ face was shown for the first time in the vignettes, and her new ring name was revealed as Kharma
[4] Kharma made her debut on May 1 at Extreme Rules, attacking Michelle McCool after a match,[76] and she continued to attack different WWE Divas on both Raw and SmackDown in the following weeks
[77][78] On the May 23 episode of Raw, Kharma interrupted a tag team match but rather than attack everyone, she uncharacteristically broke down crying
[79] The following week, Kharma spoke for the first time to reveal she was pregnant and thus forced to take a leave of absence from WWE
[80] During her absence, she was included as a downloadable playable character in the WWE ’12 video game
Kharma made a surprise return in the 2012 Royal Rumble match as the twenty-first entrant
She intimidated Michael Cole into eliminating himself before eliminating Hunico only to be thrown out by Dolph Ziggler
With her entrance, she became the third female, after Chyna and Beth Phoenix, to participate in a Royal Rumble match
This also marked her first and only official WWE match
[82] In July 2012, Stevens confirmed via Twitter that she had parted ways with WWE, after being released from her contract
[83] By August 19, she had been added to the list of the playable characters on the main roster in the WWE ’13 video game
[84] In September 2013, Stevens revealed that she was granted her release from WWE because she was not ready to return in the time they allotted for her
She also confirmed her interest in returning to the company, stating she was ready
In early November, it was reported that Stevens (again under the Amazing Kong gimmick) would be appearing at a Shine event on November 16, 2012 as the mystery partner of Jazz in a tag team match against Mercedes Martinez and Rain
At the event, Kong and Jazz defeated Martinez and Rain after Kong pinned Rain
[86] On January 18, 2013, Kong defeated D’Arcy Dixon, Nikki St
John and Thunderkitty in a four-way match to win the vacant Resistance Pro Wrestling Women’s Championship
[87] On March 8, Kong returned to Chikara, losing to Eddie Kingston in an intergender main event
[88][89] Stevens has also wrestled for PWS Bombshells (as Amazing Kong) in early to mid-2013, defeating Amy Lee in consecutive matches
On April 6, 2013, Kong returned to Shimmer at the Volume 53 internet pay-per-view, defeating Mia Yim in the opening match
[91] The Amazing Kong returned to Shine event on July 12, 2013 in a losing effort to Ivelisse in a four way to qualify for Shine Championship tournament among the participants were Angelina Love and Kimberly
Then at Shine 12 on August 23, 2013 she defeated Mercedes Martinez in a singles match
On September 27, 2013 Kong and Jessicka Havok were in a losing effort against Allysin Kay and Ivelisse
On October 25, 2013 she defeated Madison Eagles in a singles match and later in the night she was announced the next challenger for the Shine Championship
On December 13, 2013 she was defeated by Rain for the Shine Championship by count-out
On January 24, 2014 she defeated Taylor Made and on Shine 18 Kong defeated Nikki Storm and Shine 19 she defeated Athena
On August 22, 2014 Kong was part of a #1 contender four corner survival match to challenge Ivelisse for the Shine Championship the other participants in the match were Leah Von Dutch, Su Yung, and Nevaeh
Nevaeh would emerge victorious in the #1 contender match but was unsuccessful on capturing the Shine Championship
On September 21, 2014 Stevens was part of Smash CANUSA Classic where she was captain of Team USA, Stevens would lose in her tournament match against LuFisto who was team captain of team Canada which lead Team Canada victorious
On August 26, 2015, Kong returned to Japan to work the first ever event of Nanae Takahashi’s new Seadlinnng promotion, which saw her and Meiko Satomura lose to Takahashi and Ayako Hamada in a main event tag team match
At the end of the show, Kong reformed the W Kong tag team with Aja Kong
[92] Stevens was supposed to return to take part in Seadlinnng’s November 25 event, but on November 22 Takahashi announced that she had pulled out of the match due to “poor health” and claimed she had decided to retire from professional wrestling
[93] Stevens later stated that she had wrestled her final match in Japan and retired the Amazing Kong name, but was for the time being still working as Awesome Kong
On January 7, 2015, during Impact Wrestling’s debut on Destination America, Awesome Kong returned after a battle royal, had an altercation in the ring with Havok and attacked referee Brian Stiffler
[95] Over the following weeks, tension would build between Kong and Havok, with their feud culminating in a steel cage match on the Lockdown edition of Impact Wrestling on February 6, which Kong won
[96] On the March 6 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong failed to capture the TNA Knockouts Championship in her match against Taryn Terrell after she got herself disqualified
[97] She received a no disqualification rematch against Terrell on the TKO: Night of Knockouts edition of Impact Wrestling on April 24, which she lost after The Dollhouse (Marti Bell and Jade) attacked Kong
[98] On the May 1 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong turned face and allied herself with Gail Kim to feud with The Dollhouse
The following week, Kong and Kim were defeated by The Dollhouse in a 3–on–2 handicap match
[99] On the June 17 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong teamed up with Brooke to defeat The Dollhouse in a “Double or Nothing” tag team match, meaning that Kong and Brooke will face Taryn Terrell for the TNA Knockouts Championship in a three-way match
[100] At Slammiversary XIII, Kong once again teamed with Brooke to defeat The Dollhouse in a 3-on-2 handicap match
[101] Kong and Brooke received their three-way championship match on the July 1 episode of Impact Wrestling, in which Terrell retained the title
In mid–August, Kong, representing TNA, started a brief feud with Lei’D Tapa, who represented Jeff Jarrett’s “Global Force Wrestling”
The two faced off on August 12 in a match, that ended in a double count-out
[103] On the September 16 episode of Impact Wrestling, Kong competed in a fatal–four way match against Brooke, Gail Kim and Tapa for the TNA Women’s Knockout Championship, which Kim would win
[104] At Bound for Glory, Kong received a match against Kim for but was unsuccessful in regaining the championship
During October and November (taped in July), she participated in the TNA World Title Series, where she ended first of her block, tied with Gail Kim, advancing to the finals where she lost to Jessie Godderz round of 16 tournamement and being eliminated
On January 5, 2016, during Impact Wrestling’s debut on Pop, Kong allied with the The Dollhouse (Jade, Marti Bell and Rebel) and became their new leader after she attacked The Beautiful People (Madison Rayne and Velvet Sky) and Gail Kim, once again turning heel in the process
[105] On February 5, TNA announced that Stevens had been released from her contract following a backstage real–life physical altercation with Rebecca Hardy just a week before TNA’s tour in the United Kingdom
She is a playable character in the WWE ’12 and WWE ’13 video games
Stevens grew up in Carson, California and has a younger brother
[2] Prior to becoming a professional wrestler, she was employed as a social worker
[9] She also owned a business that put vending machines in several high schools
[2] Stevens’ family and friends helped her fund her career in wrestling, when she went to train in Japan
[2] She is also an investor in Nu Skin Enterprises, a line of skin and nutritional products
On May 30, 2011 Stevens announced that she was pregnant with her first child
[108] In July she made an inquiry about how many of her followers were “expecting as well”
[109] Two days after she competed in the 2012 Royal Rumble, a TMZ article claimed sources close to her informed them that she had given birth to a baby boy named Jamie on December 31, 2011
[110] This alleged claim from close sources was rephrased as fact within an hour by Pro Wrestling Torch
In March TMZ expanded the story by saying that Kia had told friends she had delivery a healthy boy on December 31, and that the child (gender unconfirmed) died an unspecified time prior to her being able to give birth
TMZ said she announced the birth as a success due to her emotional state at the time and fear of telling the truth after announcing the pregnancy on television
She also stated her intention to start a foundation for women who have experienced the loss of an unborn child
She is currently engaged to Dan Ouellette, with whom she had been in a relationship for four years prior to getting engaged
On August 6, 2012, weeks after she confirmed her WWE release, Stevens stated that she was on a mission to lose weight
She had recruited a team of fitness experts and a therapist so she could get back into wrestling shape
She also showed interest into turning the whole experience into a reality show
Recent photos have revealed a much slimmer Stevens